Vol 26, No 3 (2020)

Full Issue

Articles
Scientific substantiation of the regional development strategy of the PRC in the second half of the XX century (based on the works of Chinese economists Ma Hong and Li Jingwen)
Makeeva S.B.
Abstract

Based on the analysis of the main works of famous Chinese scholars Ma Hong and Li Jingwen, the article presents scientific conclusions on the implementation of the strategy of socio-economic regional development of the PRC in the second half of the XX century in the following areas: a comprehensive assessment of the policy of «reforms and openness», analysis of rationalization of economic management systems, research on inter-regional competition and prospects for the development of a «socialist commodity economy». In Chinese historiography, the issues of strategic socio-economic transformations are reflected in the monographs of various scholars of historians, economists, geographers An Husen, Wang Shenjing, Ye Yumin, Ren Baoping, Liu Weidong, Sun Jiuwen, Sun Shangqing, Wu Shuqing, Cao Yuhoy, Jing Yuejun, Zhang Wenzhong, Zhang Xiaolei and Cheng Bidin, as well as on the pages of magazines such as «Jingji Guancha» («Economic Observation»), «Zhongguo Gune Jinji» («Industrial Economy of China»), «Chengshi Guihua» («Urban Planning»), «Quuyu Jinji Pinglun» («Regional Economic review»), «Guotszi venti Yanji» («Research International»), «Zhongguo shi di byantszyan Yanji» («Study of history and geography of China’s border areas»). The purpose of this article is to identify the features of the scientific justification of socio-economic transformations in China in the second half of the XX century Chinese scholars economists Ma Hong and Li Jingwen. To achieve this goal, using the method of logical and concrete analysis of the main works of leading Chinese economists, patterns were identified in the scientific justification for the implementation of the strategy of socio-economic regional development of the PRC in the second half of the XX century. At the end of the XX century, Chinese economists in their research focused on the study of regional features of implementation of the policy of «reform and openness», while using the results of their research activities in the process of managing regional economic projects of the PRC.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):8-15
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Mining industry on the lands of the Orenburg Cossack army at the end of the XVIII – early XX century
Godovova E.V.
Abstract

The article describes the state of the mining industry on the territory of the Orenburg Cossack army at the end of the XVIII – beginning of the XX century. The bowels of the military lands contained the following mineral wealth: placers of gold, copper and iron ores, coal and other minerals. On the basis of archival data, the author comes to the conclusion that gold mining was most developed, although it practically did not bring income to the army. Attempts by the military administration to increase the subsidies allocated by the state for the extraction of gold in the military lands were unsuccessful. In addition, the predatory use of mines by gold miners worsened the ecological situation. The development of other deposits contained in the bowels of the military territory was stagnant. The Magnetic Mountain was famous for the highest content of magnetic iron ore. Despite the fact that starting from 1840 it was within the boundaries of the Orenburg Cossack army, the Pashkovs, the plant owners, had practically a monopoly on the extraction of magnetic iron ore. All claims filed in the court of military administrations for payment of compensation for the mined ore were dismissed. The Cossacks themselves were practically not engaged in the extraction of minerals, but were limited only to the leasing of land, which was regulated at the beginning of the XX century. both at the local and state levels. However, the absence or remoteness of railways and cities from places rich in natural deposits were the reason for the reluctance to engage in their development.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):16-21
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Urban periphery. The problem of spontaneous growth of the territory of Samara in the second half of the XIX – early XX century
Chepurnova E.I.
Abstract

The article discusses the development of Samara’s urban space in the focus of the formation and development of urban periphery. The factor of spontaneity in the formation of urban space is considered. The second half of the XIX – early XX centuries was characterized by a rapid growth of the urban population, which led to the formation of new settlements near city. The demarcation and construction of new suburban settlements was carried out by residents without the consent of the city authorities. The purpose of this article is to analyze the factor of spontaneity in the formation and development of urban space. The influence of spontaneous suburbs on the urban space of Samara and the formation of its socio-cultural identity is analyzed. The research is based on the subject field of historical urbanism and is on an interdisciplinary and socio-cultural approach. The source base of the research is the office documentation of city authorities. The ways of solving the problem of spontaneous construction in Samara at the beginning of the XX century are considered. The emergence of spontaneous suburbs was the result of the authorities’ untimely response to overpopulation of urban space during a period of rapid economic growth and shortsightedness in planning urban areas. Most often, migrants built residential houses on the lands of the industrial zone, which, along with the inaccessibility of urban communications and overcrowded irregular development, led to unsanitary conditions and outbreaks of diseases. At the same time, the poverty of the local population influenced the growth of deviant forms of behavior and contributed to the formation of a rural look of peripheral areas. All this adversely affected the urban space as a whole. In this regard, the solution of the problem of spontaneous suburbs for the city authorities was equated with the improvement of the urban environment and the improvement of its quality.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):22-27
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Noble family Boutorovs in the XIX century (materials of genealogical research)
Sumburova E.I., Zherdeva Y.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the history of the Boutorovs in the XIX – early XX century. The paper examines the basis for granting them the nobility, reconstructs the family tree, and traces the social and economic aspects of family history (education, service, land ownership). The research methodology is based on historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods that allow conducting genealogical research, tracing changes in the social and economic status of the family, and understanding how typical they were for the Russian nobility. The sources of the research were archival and published ego-documents of the Boutorovs, act materials and heraldic documents preserved in the Syzran branch of the CGASO and the RGIA. The authors conclude that the history of the Boutorovs was typical of the noble families that grew out of the official environment. Not having a large income, the Boutorovs were twice able to acquire an estate: the first was purchased, the other was given as a dowry. Both estates were economically profitable when the owners were actively engaged in them, and successfully adapted to the new economic conditions. Atypical for the capital’s noble families was the departure of the Boutorovs to the province – to an estate that was previously part of the efficient farms in the Middle Volga region. However, this did not lead to the loss of horizontal ties with influential court circles, but rather strengthened them, thanks to successful studies in prestigious educational institutions of the younger generation. The Boutorovs was in relationship with famous noble families such as Davydovs, Tatischevs, Khomyakovs, Bestuzhevs, Polivanovs; they was well received in the best capital living rooms, and also was presented to the court. The expansion of knowledge about this noble family makes it possible to clarify both social and economic aspects of the nobility of the late Russian Empire.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):28-35
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Peasants in self-government bodies in the second half of the XIX and early XX century (based on the materials of Vyatka province)
Subbotina A.M.
Abstract

The article aims to study the problem of peasants participation in the bodies of rural, volost (parish), and Zemstvo self-government in the 1860–1910-ies. It uses new documents from the funds of the Vyatka Governor Office and the Vyatka Provincial Presence of the Central State Archive of the Kirov Region. The article notes the important role of the abolition of serfdom and land reform in changing the forms of peasants social activity. The author concludes that the peasants had a common approach to rural and Zemstvo elections. The composition of the population of Vyatka province also influenced the election results. The article particularly examines the territorial (zemsky) district chiefs reports, the elected officials petitions, and state that the majority of peasants perceived public service as a heavy duty that distracts from agricultural labor. Therefore, peasants preferred middle-aged candidates had a profitable farm. Such householders might not be literate, but they used their life and business experience in public service and did not harm their household. The article analyzes the composition and journals of Zemstvo assemblies and comes to the conclusion that such peasants were interested in social activities. Long-term service in various Zemstvo positions, defending their point of view during meetings of Zemstvo assemblies are evidence of this interest. The author examines archival documents and notes the patronizing attitude of territorial (zemsky) district chiefs and other local administrative officials towards the peasantry. They used constant communication and good knowledge of the peasants in organizing the elections.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):36-42
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Personalized professional orientation of schoolchildren: designing self-realization in activities
Melnik N.M., Nesterenko V.M.
Abstract

The article authors discusse the methodology of a fundamentally new organization of preparing schoolchildren for a conscious orientation in a rapidly changing professional environment, the essence of which is the formation of the schoolchildren’s ability to meaningfully construct invariants of their professional activity, providing an actual change in the state of the object in the process of putting forward and implementing their own ideas. The expediency of introducing the discipline «WORLD of activity» into the curriculum is proved, the content of which is aimed at creating a holistic parametric model of the subject’s professional activity and the meaningful implementation of the axiomatic relationship of changes in the structure of the activity with changes in the state of the object’s parameters in a real environment. The development mechanism of a schoolchildren’s ability to carry out the transformation and design of activities in the process of update the relationship of activity directions is described: industrial, environmental, scientific, artistic, managerial, pedagogical, medical, physical, need, goal, self-determination, norms, criteria, content, methods, personal abilities, and ways of working. It is argued that the conscious management of the selection of the relationship of directions of activity and their contextual filling with information that reflects the state and changes in the environment of activity allows the schoolchildren to develop original ideas and create many options for their implementation, to discover a wide range of professional trajectories and opportunities for self-realization in activities. The indicators of productivity of personalized professional orientation of schoolchildren were revealed: an increase in the productivity of intellectual activity, an increase in personal motivation and a personal need for predicting promising areas and types of activity, a decrease in unproductive memory load about the knowledge about well-known areas of activity and professions, real-time construction of professional activities in the chosen field.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):43-50
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Pedagogical aspect of adolescent social adaptation
Yarushkin N.N., Satonina N.N., Khabibov S.M.
Abstract

In the authors the article are dedicated to identifying the peculiarities of pedagogical activities aimed at optimizing the social adaptation of adolescents from single-parent families. Internal and external factors that contribute to this type of adaptation are defined. Teachers’ attention is drawn to the significant differences in the processes of social adaptation of adolescents from full and part-time families, which is important to take into account in their pedagogical techniques and methods of work associated with the correction of some adverse effects of social disadaptation of adolescents from single-parent families.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):51-55
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Criteria for the development of social responsibility in future officers of the national guard of the Russian Federation
Rukavishnikov A.V.
Abstract

This article examines the key problem of the modern educational paradigm – the problem of personal development. The author highlights several contradictions in this problem, one of which is the definition of development criteria. According to the author, the fundamental quality of a person is its social responsibility. The problem of social responsibility in society is now recognized by many as a potential danger to humanity, which is confirmed by the activity in the framework of research in this area. Therefore, the concept of social responsibility of the individual as a phenomenon in science has developed quite steadily. A serious problem of social responsibility is in the sphere of professional activity. You can often hear the following concepts: social responsibility of a doctor, social responsibility of a teacher, social responsibility of a scientist, social responsibility of a business, etc. However, the current socio-political situation forces us to talk about the social responsibility of the military. The analysis of scientific research shows that social responsibility is poorly developed among military personnel. The specifics of military professional activity of a serviceman require the development of their own criteria for evaluating its development. The analysis of the military professional activity of the future officer indicates the need to consider social responsibility in this category of persons from the position of its three criteria: attitude to activity, attitude to other people, attitude to oneself. This hypothesis was tested and proved as a result of the research. The study was conducted in three stages. At the first stage, a number of personal characteristics were identified that relate to the social responsibility of the individual. At the second stage, an expert survey was conducted to determine the level of manifestation of signs of social responsibility in a group of cadets with a high level of social responsibility. The final step was the factor analysis procedure, the results of which established that a high level of social responsibility of personality of future officer equally determine all three of its criteria: attitude to activity, attitude to other people, attitude to oneself.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):56-60
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Regional lexicography: zoological vocabulary in ideographic dictionary
Bazhenova T.E.
Abstract

In the article the working results on one section of the thematic dictionary of Samara dialects are summarized. The study is novel in the application of the ideographic description technique to the large lexical material, which was extracted from the unpublished files of dialectological expeditions in the villages of the Samara region. The author of the article reported that the language corps of vocabulary fixations was used as the main source of the thematic group of zoological vocabulary, which was compiled using the thematic questionnaire, given to respondents. The thematic zoological vocabulary was classified and divided into two main semantic blocks: «Wild Animals» and «Home Animals.»The author states that both semantic blocks represent complex system formations with developed differentiation of dialect nominations. Attention is drawn to the fact that the first block is dominated by the names of fish, birds, insects, and reptiles, while the most part of the second block consists of the animal’s and bird’s names grown in the household. In the Samara dialects there is a variety of word-formation dialect modifications of words, the presence of productive affixes. The author raises the question, if it is possible to represent systematically the names of individual members of the animal world, which were borrowed by Russians from the other languages of the Volga region people, in the dialect dictionary. The author claims that the material of the Samara dialects is optimally reflected in the dictionary compiled using the technique of ideographic description. The article concludes that the systemic connections identified as a result of the study in the thematic group of zoological names can be used in the complex characteristic of secondary dialects of the Volga region, along with the facts of other dialect language’s levels.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):61-66
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About some ways of studying media discourse in contemporary Russian linguistics
Mikhalcheva A.V.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the description of the main contemporary ways of studying mass media language. Due to its global penetration and influence on all spheres of communication, the research of its functioning becomes the main aspect of foreign and Russian scientific works. The dominating cognitive-discourse paradigm interprets a text in accordance with the communicative situation and cognitive peculiarities of the participants of such communication and gives an opportunity to study mass media texts as a media discourse which includes different aspects of language usage in print and electronic media as well as peculiarities of the channel of communication: television, radio, newspapers, the Internet. As a result, it becomes necessary not only to distinguish new grounds of classification media texts but also to establish the methods of analysis and describe its influence on other spheres of language usage. The main aim of the article is to analyze the most widespread ways of studying mass media language in contemporary Russian linguistics that leads to the understanding of modern tendencies of researching such texts. The author has chosen such trends as media linguistics, media stylistics and discourse-sphere that are the most prominent ways of mass media language interpretation in the scientific society resulting in the great number of articles and monographs not only by the authors of these theories but also by their adherents. The result of this article is the systematic description of these theories, their classification and peculiar methods of investigation.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):67-73
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Comparative study of the communicative behavior of Russians in comparison with Chinese
Yan, A.
Abstract

The contradictory situation of globalization and active business contacts between the citizens of Russia and China is formed with insufficient mutual acquaintance of the participants of communication with the linguistic, cultural and behavioral differences in the mentalities of both ethnic groups. The study of these differences facilitates both direct understanding of someone else’s utterance, and the creation of positive contacts that are not burdened by conflict factors. In these conditions, it is particularly important to know the set of verbal and non-verbal means of utterance of Russian and Chinese-speaking participants in communication, including phraseological and label-gesture features. The main concept of kinesics is that the faces of people are no less than their words, you can judge many, including their current psychological and emotional state. The study of nonverbal means of communication is based on the idea that each of the attributes of the body, be it shape, size, etc., acquires its own meaning under certain conditions. Author it is concluded that it is necessary to combine the actual linguistic and communicative skills of those who communicate with their creative comprehension, comparing them with the corresponding phenomena in their native language and native culture.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):74-77
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Using the novelty’s semantics in advertising texts for presenting the quality of goods
Vazhdaeva E.A.
Abstract

The article examines the functioning of lexemes new, innovation, novelty, in a new way, updated. Words are in advertising texts, one way or another, informing about the high quality of the advertised product. The material for this article is about 500 units of the largest database of advertising videos of the Rusreklama channel on the website youtube.ru. The object of promotion is cars and smartphones. The most frequent patterns of using the lexeme new are revealed. The most frequent dictionary meanings of the word new, which are used in advertising texts, have been determined. The analysis shows that in advertising communication to promote an advertising object, all available dictionary meanings of the word new and semantically related words are used. The choice of these or those lexical and semantic variants of these words in one or another case depends on the goal pursued by the advertiser and the tactics that he uses in this case. Despite the exclusively pragmatic orientation of the advertising discourse, as shown by the study of lexemes with the meaning of novelty, the text fully uses the semantic potential of linguistic units, which makes it possible to implement various speech methods of influencing the consumer in relation to different objects of advertising.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):78-82
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Onomastic words in English mini-format abstracts of educational and scientific books
Cherkunova M.V., Ponomarenko E.V.
Abstract

The article deals with the analysis of onomastic units in specialized advertisements. The research is based on the English advertising abstracts of textbooks and scientific books from the 2019–2020 catalogues of British and American publishers. The purpose of this work is to identify semantic and pragmatic parameters of proper names and to determine their role in the realization of the pragmatic function of the text. Abstracts of educational and scientific books are treated as mini-format syncretic units which combine the pragmatics and the linguistic features of advertising and academic discourses. A significant percentage of proper names in the advertising abstracts is considered to be a manifestation of scientific discourse that contributes to the realization of the persuasive function of the advertisement. Semantic analysis of the onomastic units combined with their quantitative analysis result in defining nuclear and peripheral semantic clusters within the aforesaid group of words. Further discourse analysis allows to describe the pragmatic potential of proper names and also to reveal their role in the mechanism of persuasive function realization. Thus, the names of authors, their titles and positions, names of books, universities and their locations turn out to bear the greatest pragmatic charge. Names of literary awards, of structural parts of the book, as well as the names of months specifying publication details prove to be pragmatically significant. The peripheral position is occupied by miscellaneous groups of semantically heterogeneous proper names which are determined by the topic of a particular book. As a result, the high proportion of onomastic units in mini-format advertising abstracts, as well as their high concentration in a narrow semantic field prompt a conclusion that proper names are highly effective in fulfilling the pragmatic potential of the advertising abstracts due to their ability to simultaneously inform and affect.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):83-87
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Precedent phenomena and stereotypes in the linguo-cultural space: touch points and divergence points
Matveyeva А.А.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the investigation of two types of cultural signs – precedent phenomena and stereotypes. The deepened interest to the processes of intercultural communication, to the things predetermining its success or failure, to the things preconditioning certain evaluation of the communicative behaviour of a cultural community representative, not only defined the rapid development of the linguo-culturological paradigm but also required a re-interpretation of the interrelation between language, culture and mind questions. Precedent phenomena and stereotypes provide a fertile field for the investigation of such questions as the cultural markedness of language signs, cognitive structures verbalization, characteristics providing the commonness of a linguo-cultural space, the variety of aspects of a linguo-cultural personality. The aim of this article is to compare precedent phenomena and stereotypes in order to elicit their common features and differentiation lines. The investigation has been conducted on the English fiction and mass-media material which allowed to educe the ethnocultural connotations of precedent phenomena and stereotypes reflecting some stable representations of objects of reality in the mind of the language speakers. The investigation has revealed that the characteristics common for precedent phenomena and stereotypes include the sociocultural markedness of both cultural phenomena, their suprapersonal character, the reduced and invariant way of keeping in the mind of the linguocultural community representatives, the value-based and deictic character. As the investigation has shown, the differences between precedent phenomena and stereotypes take the lines «emergence – non-emergence», «monoreferentiality – polyreferentiality», «metaphoricity – non-metaphoricity», «degree of behaviour modelling ability».

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):88-94
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Types of derivatives with prefix mega- in synchronic and diachronic perspectives
Shapovalenko E.V.
Abstract

The article describes different types of derivatives with the prefix mega- in the English language in terms of word-formation meanings. The study of the component of ancient Greek origin functioning in a synchronic and diachronic perspective made it possible to establish the reasons and describe the mechanisms of its further derivational transformations in English language. In the receiving language, the adjective μέγας undergoes cross-level conversion and is used as a prefix element in various derivatives. The quantitative semantics that is genetically inherent in the component is implemented as a part of terminological units in which the prefix acts as a term element. In other types of discourse, the quantitative identification function is combined with the function of evaluation. In derivatives related to popular science or commercial discourse, the prefix mega- serves to distinguish an object from a number of similar ones and marks it as an exceptional phenomenon. The method of profiling used in the analysis made it possible to describe the internal mechanism of word-formation meanings of derivatives with the prefix mega-. Contextual analysis and survey of informants (native English speakers) allowed for differentiation between the meaning of mega- and super- prefixes used in the evaluation function. It has been found that in English derivatives, the prefix mega- marks the highest degree of the quality and is attached to the bases, which referents could be evaluated in the terms of quantitative characteristics. The addition of the prefix super- is not related to parametric characteristics in the meaning of the root morpheme, which determines its assessment by native speakers as a marker of a lower degree of evaluated quality.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):95-100
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Reflexive discourse of project activities: after intercultural project «Rilke and Russia»
Kostrova O.A.
Abstract

The intercultural project was executed by the German department of Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education together with colleges from the Ludwigsburg Pedagogical Institute (Germany). We have realized the Project in two directions: as a compact seminar for German and Russian students and as professional development for Russian teachers of German. In the paper I analyze a new research subject: the arts of reflective discourse during activities in foreign language. I observe two arts of reflective discourse: one of them is setting perspective and another one gives reflectional estimate. I develop the conception of role subject in the intercultural discourse. The main consideration is given to criterions that distinguish discourse analyze from text analyze, that are categories of subject and its role status and relationship between discourse formations. In discourse formations I find out conceptual dominants that I determine by the frequency of their representants. I also find out language expressional reflecting means by Russian and German role subjects and compare estimating utterances from the viewpoint of intercultural differences. As research material I use hand made notes of oral utterances done by role subjects (moderators and learners) to set perspective or to give reflectional estimate as well as 28 written reflectional texts of students and teachers. The findings of my research show distinctive features of reflectional discourse in intercultural project activities: their direction to own activities and to activities of learners; broadening of learner’s activities who form recipient’s expectations in perception of project products; implicit retrospective character of prospective discourse formations that summarize preliminary work concerning the project; the possibility of written hold of estimated opinions and of comparison of their content and language appearance in discourse formations; dominant estimating concepts of intercultural project by role subjects.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):101-107
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‘Thare is na leid on life of lordship hym like’: linguistic means of depicting king arthur in the poem Golagros and Gawain
Stoliarova A.G.
Abstract

It has recently been marked that the figure of king Arthur in Scottish literature is rather controversial: on the one hand, Arthur is a noble and valiant knight; on the other hand, he is an arrogant invader whose aim is to conquer the whole world. The contradictory nature of the figure of the legendary king results from the differences between English and Scottish political mythology: in Scotland by the late Middle Ages there had been developed its own legendary history, and the historical myth about Arthur as a king of the whole Britain had been interpreted as a threat to the national sovereignty. The paper focuses on the analysis of linguistic means of depicting king Arthur in one of the two surviving Scottish Arthurian romances, Golagros and Gawain written in the XVth century by an anonymous author. Golagros and Gawain continues the tradition of Middle English alliterative revival in Scotland in a local variety of the English language; the diction and style of this tradition are characterized by the use of substantive epithets, formulas, attributive complexes with alliterating elements. The research has shown that in Golagros and Gawainking Arthur is depicted as an honorable and generous, almost ideal ruler who returns to Golagros the independence he had earlier been deprived of. King’s dignity and nobility are emphasized in the poem with the help of traditional linguistic means of alliterative poetry: the qualities expressed in attributes are repeated several times with variations in poetic formulas and fixed in substantive epithets.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):108-113
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Phraseology of urs widmer: example of one literary text
Stikhina I.A.
Abstract

The article focuses on the heterogeneity of the terminology of phraseological research and on the relevance of understanding phraseology as a set of characteristic ways of linguistic expression by an individual author. The aim of the research is to reveal the peculiarities of the phraseology of the Swiss German-speaking author Urs Widmer (1938–2014) on the basis of a particular work – a series of miniatures called «Berufe!» («Professions!»). The object of the research is the phraseological units of a given text, and the tasks are the systematization of phraseological units, the determination of the features of their modifications, the establishment of the role of phraseological units in the artistic semantics of the text. The systematization of phraseological units leads to the selection of two main groups – unmodified and modified phraseological units. The modified phraseological units, in turn, in accordance with the classification of G. Burger, are divided according to the methods of modification and analyzed using several examples. It is revealed that unmodified phraseological units prevail in the text, and among the modified ones, the main ones are formal-semantic and semantic methods of modification. G. Burger's classification turns out to be the most appropriate way to organize the author's modifications of phraseological units in a literary work, since, based on the principle of semantic marking, it distinguishes a formal-semantic type of modifications that combines both structural and semantic shifts. The article also analyzes the influence of phraseological units and their modifications on the semantic and stylistic features of a literary text. It is revealed that phraseological units contribute to the creation of features of the spoken style, the reception of the «stream of consciousness» and the formation of the general expressive tonality of the work. It is also confirmed that phraseological units, due to their ambivalent nature, become generators of the language game that arises when they are modified. The results of the language game are the creation of a comic effect, the effect of ironic distancing and the transfer of the author's expressive evaluative position. The article outlines as further research prospects – the possibility of determining the features of the «phraseology of the author» within the framework of his literary work as a whole.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):114-120
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Structural features and specifics of abbreviations in the professional discourse (vocabulary of the nuclear industry reviewed)
Feldman N.B.
Abstract

The article identifies three principles of classification of initial and mixed abbreviations relating to the vocabulary of the nuclear industry: according to their lexical and grammatical category (appellatives, nomens, onyms), their pronunciation (alphabetism and acronyms) and their origin (proper and borrowed abbreviations). The types and characteristics of abbreviations are studied by means of the descriptive, contextual, pragmatic and structural methods in order to identify their specific features which are likely to denote the abbreviations of the professional discourse. The sample language material includes the vocabulary of the nuclear industry. The outcomes of the research make it possible to draw the following conclusions about the general and specific characteristics of abbreviations in professional discourse: 1) according to the communicative-discursive approach, the abbreviation process ensures the success of a communicative act providing the idea to be short and clear; 2) the use of abbreviations outside the professional discourse can lead to communicative failure due to the existing discursive antinomy «friend or foe» that defines professional language users and people irrelevant to the professional discourse; 3) the abbreviations-appellatives are likely to predominate due to long-word terms as a characteristic of a developing industry and a young terminological system; 4) the numerical or alphabetic part of abbreviations is seen as their specific features that can make sense for professionals and absolutely vague for the rest of native speakers; 5) abbreviations-onyms, including ergonyms and chrematonyms, follow the general linguistic trends; 6) alphabetisms come over acronyms that is non-typical for Modern Russian and is caused by a great number of long-word terms, often including abbreviations with hard-to-pronounce sound combinations, as well as preserving the informational significance of components or provoking homonymous repulsion processes.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):121-130
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Ethnocultural German text «Kalendergeschichte»: prototypical features of the composition and plot organization of the text structure
Nebesnyuk U.A.
Abstract

Linguists of the 21st century are actively engaged in the typology of texts. Text types that are insufficiently studied from a linguistic point of view are of special interest to them. These text types include «calendar stories» developed from a «calendar» as a mass media in the ethnic culture of Germany. Entertaining historical and satirical stories of a sentential nature went beyond the calendar at the beginning of the 19th century and formed an independent literary genre «calendar story» (ger. «Kalendergeschichte»). In order to identify the prototypical features of the compositional and structural organization of this text type, the author analyzes the calendar stories of the collection «Treasure house of the Rhenish friend of the house» («Schatzkästlein des rheinischen Hausfreundes») of J.P. Hebel. As a result of cross-cutting analysis it was determined that the «calendar story» as a special type of ethnocultural German text has the main features of the compositional-speech form «narration», its conciseness. This allows us to refer the text type under study to literary narrative, small epic genres, which are characterized with a single story line and a clear structural and compositional organization of the text as a whole. In the composition and plot construction of the calendar stories three «strong positions» of the text were highlighted – a title, a beginning and an ending. Information about a main activity of a main character, nature of an event and place of its action has been recognized as dominating in the titles of the «stories from the calendar». The main types of compositional and semantic design of initial positions of the text include: an exposition, an author's remark and a plot. In relation to the ending of the calendar stories, the author identifies three types of final positions of the text: a pointe, a denouement after a pointe, and a moralizing author's remark, which can be a final act of the calendar story, general advice for practical application, and a lengthy discussion on a moral topic.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(3):131-141
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