Mining industry on the lands of the Orenburg Cossack army at the end of the XVIII – early XX century

Abstract

The article describes the state of the mining industry on the territory of the Orenburg Cossack army at the end of the XVIII – beginning of the XX century. The bowels of the military lands contained the following mineral wealth: placers of gold, copper and iron ores, coal and other minerals. On the basis of archival data, the author comes to the conclusion that gold mining was most developed, although it practically did not bring income to the army. Attempts by the military administration to increase the subsidies allocated by the state for the extraction of gold in the military lands were unsuccessful. In addition, the predatory use of mines by gold miners worsened the ecological situation. The development of other deposits contained in the bowels of the military territory was stagnant. The Magnetic Mountain was famous for the highest content of magnetic iron ore. Despite the fact that starting from 1840 it was within the boundaries of the Orenburg Cossack army, the Pashkovs, the plant owners, had practically a monopoly on the extraction of magnetic iron ore. All claims filed in the court of military administrations for payment of compensation for the mined ore were dismissed. The Cossacks themselves were practically not engaged in the extraction of minerals, but were limited only to the leasing of land, which was regulated at the beginning of the XX century. both at the local and state levels. However, the absence or remoteness of railways and cities from places rich in natural deposits were the reason for the reluctance to engage in their development.

About the authors

E. V. Godovova

Orenburg branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Orenburg, Russian Federation; Orenburg State Pedagogical University, Orenburg, Russian Federation

Author for correspondence.
Email: morenov@ssau.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5798-3413

Doctor of Historical Sciences, associate professor, professor of the Department of Humanities, Socio-Economic, Mathematical and Natural Science Disciplines, Orenburg branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation

References

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