Vol 24, No 4 (2018)

Full Issue

Articles

CULT OF ANCESTORS IN TRADITIONAL ETIQUETTE OF BASHKIRS

Baiazitova R.R.

Abstract

The article presents results of a theoretical and empirical research of influence of the cult of ancestors on the formation of traditional etiquette of Bashkirs. The belief that souls of the dead take part in life of descendants promoted emergence of the bans and instructions, the rules of conduct concerning relationships of representatives of the real and imaginary worlds. A research objective is studying a role and the place of a cult of ancestors in traditional etiquette of Bashkirs. When writing article the integrated approach assuming the analysis of historical, philosophical, ethnographic works and field materials received during the deep interview was applied. During the work comparative-historical and typological, descriptive methods of a research were used.
Studying materials has allowed to draw a conclusion that a cult of ancestors and the followed rules of conduct in relation to the dead are based on ideas of soul as independent substance which can depart from a fright, can travel during sleep, leave a body after death, etc. Also concepts of destiny, death, soul, category of spirits and ways of coaxing of aruakh are considered. According to the beliefs of Bashkirs, souls of the dead take the mediated part in life of the descendants: protect from dangers, predict and warn. At the same time they need support therefore devote them special meals, prayers, gifts. A cult of ancestors, features of interaction with the world of spirits have found reflection in mythology, folklore and in everyday life of Bashkirs. During the research the safety and transformation of separate norms of honoring of ancestors in modern conditions are revealed.
Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):7-12
pages 7-12 views

CHURCH POLICY OF PRINCE MIKHAIL ALEXANDROVICH OF TVER

Tarabrin S.Y.

Abstract

The article considers the Church policy of Prince Mikhail Alexandrovich of Tver. Tver Prince managed to defend the independence of his Principality in the fight against the strengthened Moscow Principality, which claimed the role of the unifier of Russia. The Church had an important place in his affeirs. At the beginning of the XIV century the alliance of Moscow and Russian metropolitans formed. Metropolitan Alexius most actively used the opportunities of the Church to strengthen the positions of Moscow. Being the enemy of the Prince Dmitry Ivanovich of Moscow, Mikhail turned out to be an opponent of the Metropolitan Alexius. Based on the chronicle material and correspondence of the Patriarchate of Constantinople with the warring parties, the conflict between the Metropolitan and the Prince of Tver is traced. The opposite sides appealed to the Patriarch Philotheus to support their position. Initially, the Patriarch of Constantinople expressed support for Alexius, but under the influence of Mikhail Alexandrovich and his ally, the Lithuanian prince Olgerd, he took a neutral conciliatory position. As a result, under the influence of Philotheus, the prince of Tver reconciled with Alexius. Mikhail developed excellent relations with the next Metropolitan Cyprian, who was hiding in Tver from the troops of Tokhtamysh. The position of Bishop of Tver had also great importance. Bishop Basil suffered from the Metropolitan for supporting Mikhail. However, in 1390 there was a conflict between the prince and the new Tver bishop Euthymius. Metropolitan Cyprian reconciled them by ordaining a new bishop Arsenius to Tver. Mikhail carried out active church construction, maintained contacts with Constantinople and Athos. The author attempted to analyze the relations of Mikhail of Tver with the Church and their influence on the political situation in North-Eastern Russia in the second half of the 14th century.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):13-19
pages 13-19 views

«VIOLENT ROMANCES»: EMOTIONAL PRACTICES IN PETTY BOURGEOIS EVERYDAY LIFE OF RUSSIAN CITIES

Kobozeva Z.M.

Abstract

The article analyzes the problem of the history of feelings of the largest urban class in the Russian Empire, bourgeoisie. The events of everyday life of the townspeople of Russian cities are studied on the basis of achievements of one of the fastest growing areas in modern historical science – «history of emotions». Dialogues of burghers with the power on various occasions of their daily life were permeated with emotions. You can study the lives of people on dry recorded in various sources of facts. And you can study people’s lives in the context of their emotional experiences of life. Class status and the ensuing obligations, circumstances could cause collective emotions, for example, the emotion of grief because of the recruitment duty, or because of the need to pay taxes, because of passport dependence on local authorities, etc. The degree of severity of emotional sphere of petty–bourgeois life can be focused in the cultural sign of «cruel romance» («petty–bourgeois romance»). In any case, this article is the first experience in the historiography of analysis of the collective class emotion of bourgeoisie, focused on the main points of bourgeois everyday life – in the framework of this article, mainly recruitment. Recruit was lost to society. So parting with recruit is similar to crying about a dead man. Legitimate, for the most part, petty-bourgeois, as a rule, could avoid recruitment with the help of «volunteers» or family belongings’ separating. That is, passive acceptance of the inevitable is another general emotional state. The study of the class of emotions allows you to identify the mentality of society and compare with the image of the petty-bourgeois, which was created by Russian artistic literature and being denounced by intelligentsia.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):20-25
pages 20-25 views

ELECTRIFICATION OF THE RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN THE VOLGA REGION AND ON THE URALS IN 1956–1991

Konov A.A.

Abstract

The main aim of the article is the investigation of the process of fundamental technical reconstruction
of transport on the basis of electrification. In 1956 the Council of the Ministers confirmed the Railway Transport Electrification Master Plan. The railway transport of the Urals and of the Volga Region entered in the new period of progress connected with radical reorganization of the railway transport system. Electrification of the Ural railway transport had been predetermined by the great volumes of transportations, highlands and hard climatic conditions of the Urals. The analysis of great amount of documents proved that the railways of the Urals and of the Volga Region had been electrified as the local cuts of great railways of the USSR – Great Siberian railway, Southern Siberian railway and main lines Moscow – Sverdlovsk and Moscow – Kazan. Electrification made deep changes in the material and technical basis of the railway transport: the heavy solid rails had been laid in the track on the metal ballast, radio communication had been spread on the railroads for the short time, the great impulse had been given to scientific investigations in the sphere of power system of railroads. But the most significant achievement of modernization became the foundation on the transport of the new institutes and technical schools where the large majority of engineers and technicians had been trained for exploitation of the electrified railroads.

The author determined the main aims of electrification in the Volga Region and in the Urals. The electrified railways of the Volga Region increased the carrying capacity of communications of the central regions with the Bashkir Republic and Kazakhstan. The electrified lines of the Urals provided the modernization of the Great Siberian railway and improved the communications between the European regions of the USSR and the Western Siberian region. The author proved that modernization of the Ural and the Volga Region railways on the basis of diesel traction had small economic and technical effects. Electrification became the main and decisive way of modernization of the Ural and Volga Region railway transport.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):26-34
pages 26-34 views

TRAJECTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF SAMARA STATE UNIVERSITY IN 2009–2015

Leonov M.M., Kabytov P.S.

Abstract

The article analyzes the final stage of activity of the staff of the Samara State University (2009–2015), during which the transition to a multi-level education system began, as well as searching for ways out of the university from a crisis state. The factors that negatively influenced the development of the university were identified. The analysis of activities aimed at expanding the educational space of the university, increasing the areas of training for undergraduate and graduate programs, modernization of scientific and educational environment and infrastructure of Samara State University is presented. The development programs of faculties and the strategic development program of the university for 2015–2025 were developed. It was adopted by the Academic Council of Samara University in October 2013. The program envisaged the participation of scientific schools of the university in the implementation of a number of economic and socio-cultural projects included in the strategic program of the Samara region.

The main methods of research were comparative historical and statistical methods used in the analysis of the corpus of documentary sources. Methods of retrospective and perspective analysis were also used. Sources of study include materials of the current archive of the Samara State University, minutes of meetings of the Academic Council of the Samara State University, reports on scientific activities, materials of the periodical press, personal archives of the authors.

The authors concluded that despite the efforts being made by the administration, the Academic Council and the scientific and pedagogical team in 2009–2015 Samara State University did not manage to get out of crisis state and start implementing the strategic program of university development for 2015–2025. The main problem of the university was the lack of financial and political support from the federal ministry and regional authorities.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):35-41
pages 35-41 views

LEGAL CULTURE OF A SPECIALIST: RESEARCH RESULTS

Shikhanova E.G., Khramtsov Y.B.

Abstract

Increased attention is paid to the formation and development of universal characteristics of future specialists in the process of training at the University due to the integration of different types of their professional activities. In terms of scientific and technological progress, it is natural to assign a leading role to engineering activities, which includes the design, construction and creation of innovative objects of the material world. At the same time, the requirements of the world community and employers to future engineers have increased, which, along with the leading function, require a number of socio-cultural knowledge, skills and qualities, among which legal ones occupy a special place. Legal culture of a specialist is an integrative education of a person, which allows to realize their professional rights and obligations within the legal field.
This work is aimed at presenting the results of the study of legal culture of future engineers, which was determined by content analysis of the opinions of teachers of legal disciplines and graduates of engineering specialties of the same University, and subsequent comparison with the requirements of potential employers. The analysis of the results showed a significant difference between the indicators of formation of legal culture of specialists and the request of high-tech enterprises. In conclusion, the prerequisites of the results are analyzed and possible solutions are proposed.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):42-47
pages 42-47 views

TEACHERS’ VERBAL AGGRESSION: ITS CORE, REASONS, TYPES, WAYS TO COUNTERACT

Sysoeva E.Y.

Abstract

The increase in acts of verbal aggression in pedagogical environment is one of the main issues of pedagogical communication. Teachers’ verbal aggression (conscious or nonconscious) leads to communicative instability and becomes a destructive speech model for students to emulate, so that has a negative impact on educational process, teacher’s psychic health and causes students’ neurotization. The article analyzes the core of teachers’ verbal aggression, its reasons and mechanisms; organizes its types and effects in pedagogical communication. Methodology: analysis and synthesis of specific scientific knowledge; generalization and systematization of facts and statements; pedagogical observation on teachers’ verbal aggression in practice. The study identifies the main types of teachers’ verbal aggression: imperative request, intention to punish, interdiction, mockery as a way of assessment, ironic comments, clear or hidden thread, censure, hostile comments. The author proves the necessity to implement a practical-oriented system of teachers’ communicative competence development aimed to harmonize pedagogical communication through certain ways and methods to counteract verbal aggression. The article defines the means to develop teacher’s communicative potential: to improve the knowledge how to reach communicative balance in pedagogical communication with the suitable partnership strategies; to investigate the understanding of linguistic manipulation and its impact; to update teacher’s reflective abilities in situations of heated conflict; to develop skills in useful criticism.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):48-53
pages 48-53 views

LEGAL COMPETENCE OF COMMERCIAL AND PUBLIC RELATIONS SPECIALISTS

Kuznetsova N.O.

Abstract

The problem of forming the students legal competence in different areas of training is due to modern economic conditions, in which industrial relations, relations with consumers, financial relations, etc., are the main areas of activity of advertising and public relations specialists, which requires a revision of methodological and didactic principles of professional training with legal competence. A sample of the research is presented by advertising and public relations specialists, who regulate the procedure for preparing materials for publication in the mass media. Advertising and public relations specialists need to know relevant legal documents regulating the basics of advertising activity. These specialists are legally responsible for the violation of the rights of others, the use of false information in advertising, the disclosure of confidential information and trade secrets. However, it is this specialty that is associated with such professions in which information and intellectual property are often used in the framework of competitive relations. This means that advertising and public relations specialists may abuse their position, using the information they have received improperly, disclosing trade secrets, or holding back some data, hiding the negative aspects of products, services, entrepreneurs. The article presents the structure of legal competence based on the identification of the scope and types of activities; found indicators for each component. The rationale is the identified specifics and features of activities of these specialists. On the basis of theoretical development of the problem and norms of the requirements for the types of activity of an advertising and public relations specialist, the need to develop a system for forming their legal competence, the level of which affects the reputation of these specialists, is proved. At the same time, legal regulation of professional activity of advertising and public relations specialists has a decisive role for communication interaction and information security in general and for each individual representative.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):54-59
pages 54-59 views

FORMATION OF PROFESSIONAL READINESS OF TEACHERS TO THE WORK WITH JUVENILE OFFENDERS

Shestakova L.A.

Abstract

The problem of forming a teacher’s professional readiness to work with juvenile offenders is discussed in the article. The author made an attempt to confirm the relevance of the research topic with empirical data, to determine the ways of forming the teacher’s professional readiness to work with difficult teenagers. Methods of theoretical analysis and synthesis (comparative-comparative, systemic, logical, modeling), a method of sociological research-questioning were used in the article. We have revealed the peculiarities of the professional training of teachers in the university; substantiated the need for the future teachers to develop professional readiness to work with juvenile offenders; determined the structure of professional readiness of the future teacher to work with juvenile offenders; identified means of training future educators to work with juvenile offenders; have developed methodical recommendations on the order of participation of the teacher in the criminal trial during the conducted research. The results of scientific research given the new idea of professional training of the teachers. The results of scientific research contribute to improving the training of teachers to work with juvenile offenders.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):60-66
pages 60-66 views

LEGAL AND LANGUAGE ASPECTS OF STUDENTS’ TRAINING BY MEANS OF DEVELOPING EDUCATION

Rudneva T.I., Khramtcova A.B.

Abstract

Urgency of the developing education issue is caused by: changes in the social environment which have affected the social and psychological sphere of the person and negative factors in the changing world have caused a new paradigm of personality formation as «the creator and the carrier of social»; priority of personally focused developing education pursuing the aim « from the subject of social life – to the subject of own development»; existence of a contradiction between a tradition of obtaining information through visual channels, through visual communication and need of personality self-realization in free verbal communication that is caused by abilities to communication and assumes creation of optimum conditions of future expert new level consciousness formation.   
In the article attention is focused on the process of developing foreign-language education which is based on regularity of level-by-level personal development by means of a foreign language that promotes expansion of communicative range. Skilled and experimental work consisted in the development of the language personality model able to integration into world professional environment, in selection and approbation of future lawyers’ vocational training means. For teaching practice was developed an algorithm of subject matters integration with a foreign language that allows to create conditions for formation of university graduate readiness for the solution of professional tasks in multicultural environment. It is proved that specially organized training sets personal sense of activity that is confirmed by the created professional consciousness of future lawyers.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):67-70
pages 67-70 views

SYSTEM OF FORMATION OF PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED PATRIOTISM OF FUTURE SPECIALISTS OF THE DEFENSE INDUSTRY

Ustinova N.P.

Abstract

The main objective of the development of the military-industrial complex (MIC) of the country is to ensure its effective functioning as a high-tech sector of the economy, able to meet the needs of the Armed Forces in modern weapons, which leads to a social order for the training of specialists in the defense industry, possessing not only professionalism, but also high civil-Patriotic qualities.

The article describes the system of formation of future specialists of the defense complex of professionally oriented patriotism, taking into account the specifics and features of professional activity and containing interrelated elements: target, methodological, meaningful, procedural and effective, developed on the basis of system-structural, complex-adaptive, personality-oriented and competence-based approaches. The purpose of the system is to form a professionally oriented patriotism of future specialists of the defense industry, the implementation of which is possible in solving the problem of development of indicators in its structure by means of pedagogical events. The methodological element is based on the principle of identification of structures of socio-cultural function of activities to strengthen the country’s defense and value function of Patriotic culture. The content element of the system is designed on the principles of continuity and consistency, which determines the appropriateness of the allocation of successive stages in the process of formation of professionally oriented patriotism of students of defense specialties. The procedural element of the system of formation of professionally oriented patriotism is based on the principles of complex – adaptive and personality-oriented approaches. The effective element of the system is based on the competence approach and focuses on the results of activities in accordance with the goals and objectives.

The approved system of formation of professionally oriented patriotism of future specialists of the defense industry has given a positive dynamics of all indicators in the structure of components, which indicates the effectiveness of its application.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):71-77
pages 71-77 views

INTERACTION OF ALL FORMS OF LIFELONG LEARNING (ON THE EXAMPLE OF PETROZAVODSK STATE UNIVERSITY)

Nikiforova O.V., Sokolova E.I.

Abstract

The article considers formal, non-formal and informal types of education in integrity due to the development and interaction of all forms of lifelong learning. The official documents that formalize the terms of formal, non-formal and informal education are reviewed. Moreover the article reveals the impact of the informal education as the least studied on the motivation to lifelong learning and on the developing a holistic view of the world when cultural and educational components are top-priority. The article analyzes the immanent functions of the lifelong learning forms which are understood widely as a part of the nation cultural code and accompany a person throughout his/her life. The relevant situation with lifelong learning forms having been introduced at the Petrozavodsk State University (PetrSU) is presented. The pedagogical research conducted by the authors with PetrSU students is described.
The study methods were opinion polls and a questionnaire survey. The research results reveal the synergy of informal and formal (professional) education and their interconnection and mutually stimulation. Thus, the interaction of the three lifelong learning forms is the necessary integrated basis for updating a modern student research and educational potential. A modern student creative potential in many respects depends on the involvement degree into the educational process presented with all forms of lifelong learning.
To obtain a qualitatively new level of educational process and move to a result-oriented educational model teachers and students should be highly motivated. The higher level of motivation could be achieved through the informal component of lifelong learning.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):78-84
pages 78-84 views

LABOR AND EDUCATION: FROM WORKING SOCIETY TO DIGITAL ONE

Chetyrova L.B.

Abstract

The article discusses the problem of how the interrelation between the institutions of labor and education in European culture has changed. Also, the author analyses what kind of labor and education conceptualizations existed in European philosophical and pedagogical thoughts. She shows that labor and education are closely related in their historical development, and the ideas of labor and education, representing these cultural phenomena, expressed this connection in different ways in different periods of the European culture. According to her the Greek antiquity was characterized by opposing the institution of labor and education because the conceptualization of labor provided the opposition of the material/productive labor and contemplative one, which was cultivating the soul. During the Middle Ages, while maintaining the low status of material / productive labor, also changed the meaning of contemplative labor, which was filled with religious content. Author proves that in the New Age along with the existing labor institute an education institute appeared, which included the professional education institute. The further development of modern society led to the emergence of the so-called «work society», which was characterized by the deep connection between the institute of labor and of education one. The education institute was a preparation for the profession in the «work society» (U. Beck). Author highlighted the reasons of transformations in the field of labor that identified by the metaphor of the «death of work» in the 60-ies and 70-ies of the last century. Furthermore, the author shows the reasons of the radical changing the phenomenon of labor in the potscapitalist and postsocialist digital society. These reasons cause the rupture of the direct link between the institute of labor and education one, as well as the further expansion and growth of distance education.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):85-90
pages 85-90 views

MULTIMEDIA AND EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT

Sukhinin V.P., Sukhinina V.V., Spassky S.M.

Abstract

The introduction of multimedia learning tools has become possible because of the influence of environmental factors: sociological, technological, economic, and political. The recent changes in the external environment have contributed to the widespread introduction of multimedia in the organization of education: in the social environment there is an interest in communicating through a computer in social networks, the creation of powerful computers, interactive tools provide the teacher with a new tool, changes in the legal framework in the field of education also accelerates the introduction of multimedia, including the use of electronic library system.

However, along with the positive factors of the use of multimedia, there are additional problems. This is because additional training is required of teachers and students of very significant acquisition costs of technical training, content and maintenance of software and technical training. The article proposes a method of cost-effective increase of multimedia use by creating a special educational environment in the study group.

E. Matthew’s theory of human relations states that people work more productively if they feel attention from the management. Curators of training groups should contribute to the creation of an educational environment in the group. To do this, it is necessary to study the features of each student, create conditions for the implementation of features, identify informal leaders, create small groups that will organize mutual assistance in the use of multimedia tools by leveling the level of training in computer science, and reduce the fear of large amounts of information.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):91-94
pages 91-94 views

EXPLORING EFFICIENCY IN TEACHING EAP WRITING AT RUSSIAN UNIVERSITIES

Levchenko V.V., Frolova N.H.

Abstract

Teaching English for Academic Purposes (EAP) in Russian universities is becoming important nowadays because of the increasing attention to globalization. In education globalization is occurred through internationalization of education where EAP plays a crucial role. The authors of the article argue that, on the one hand, teaching English in non-linguistic Russian universities is often reduced to mastering the so-called general course of the language, which does not provide students with a tool for international communication in professional spheres. On the other hand, the English language, becoming the language of international academic communication, is transformed into a special academic discipline, becoming both a means and a content of learning English. Thus, new tasks are set for teachers of English, one of the most important is the search for effective technologies for teaching EAP. This article describes implementation of information communication technologies (ICT) in EAP course at Russian nonlinguistic universities. The aim is to carry out the theoretical analysis of the integration scheme of blended learning into the curriculum of Russian universities includes the research on the efficiency of wiki based EAP teaching experience and examines the pros and cons of various forms of blended learning opposed to the traditional classroom education and puts forward the issues of blended learning.
The article reflects the stages of the project based on technology enhanced teaching EAP to undergraduate students by means of Web 2.0 tools. The article contains a detailed description of the project, its mission and respondents’ feedback gained via quantitative and qualitative research methods. Based on the professors’ and students’ interviews, questionnaires and observation, it has been found out to be in demand among the students who are digital natives and long for ICT assisted language learning and is subject to some criticism along with numerous benefits, which are also reflected in the results and findings of the study.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):95-100
pages 95-100 views

ALEXITHYMIC BAZAROV, OR «PATIENT RECORD» OF A HERO (I.S. TURGENEV’S NOVEL «FATHERS AND SONS”)

Karpenko G.Y.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of Turgenev’s novel «Fathers and Sons», to the consideration of the image of Evgeny Bazarov. Despite the study of the work, some significant problems remained unsolved. One of these problems is connected with the inconsistency of Bazarov’s nature, with the central question of how his titanic possibilities for practical activity are consistent with his emotional scarcity. The task of this scientific article is determined by the need to pay attention not to the ideological characteristics of the hero, but to his psychosomatic personality type.
In this regard, the aim of the work is put forward: to systematically mark and describe the psychomental and behavioral manifestations of Bazarov, to reveal the multidimensional integrity of his anthropological type. To solve these problems, structural-semiotic, cultural-historical and comparative-historical methods are used, methods of psychiatric description are used. Sources of study were the novel by I. S. Turgenev, as well as, in addition to literary works, special studies on psychiatric problems.
The article for the first time considers the whole complex of mental and psychosomatic manifestations of Bazarov, which later psychiatrists and psychoanalysts, observing their patients, identified as signs of alexithymia. For the first time it is proved that Bazarov – alexithymic, which is characterized by emotional and lexical silence, underdeveloped imagination, operational thinking, lack of empathy, replacement of «verbal emotion» somatic reactions, practical prudence and a tendency to «escape» in repetitive actions, comprehensive nihilism-all that became the anthropological basis of his cultural and historical personality. The results of the article differ in scientific novelty, allow to clarify not only the existing ideas about the image of Bazarov, but also about the creative genius of I. S. Turgenev, who managed to embody in the word such a type of person, which in psychiatry will be described only in 1970.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):101-109
pages 101-109 views

BAZAROV AND HIS PARENTS: CAUSES OF ALEXITHYMIA OF A HERO (FROM THE NOVEL BY I. S. TURGENEV «FATHERS AND SONS»)

Karpenko G.Y., Karpenko L.B.

Abstract

In the article, devoted to the study of the novel of I.S. Turgenev «Fathers and sons», the issue of «family circle» of the Bazarovs is viewed, the relationship of parents with their son in his infant-childhood is reconstructed, the influence of the «Spartan ethics» of the father, and of love, «lullaby of overfeeding» of the mother on the formation of psychomental structure of the personality of the hero is traced. In the light of psychoanalysis and the «practical theory» of alexithymia, the reasons for Bazarov’s restrained attitude to parents are revealed; the son returns to them that they unwittingly, without suspecting it, in love to him and in cares of him in him generated: meager empathy, stereotype of thinkng and language enslavement, actions on «archaic algorithm», «idiosyncrasy», painful reaction to all poetically sublime. Childhood thus left in the life of the hero almost no creative «memory trace». Unlike the heroes of F. M. Dostoevsky at Bazarov was not «sacred and precious memories», carried by him in life from childhood and grace echoed in his heart. Between father’s house and Bazarov lies the psychological abyss, dug by the parents. Therefore, it is clear that he does not hurry to return home: he circles near the «mother’s hearth», but does not go home for a long time, does not come even on his angel’s day, when his mother and father are especially waiting for him. For Bazarov parental home associated with a sense of boredom. Alexithymic Bazarov, who performs mechanical actions, does not find a place where there was a reunion with the soul, the body begins to take revenge and «talk» with him about symptoms of the disease. Parental home is for Bazarov «phobic» place that awakens in the consciousness of the hero images and states of boredom, emptiness, darkness, symbolically fixed in his last perception of the outgoing life – death: «Now... darkness...»

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):110-117
pages 110-117 views

ON THE WRITER’S CROSSROADS: E.N. CHIRIKOV, A.L. TOLSTAYA, A.N. TOLSTOY

Perepelkin M.A.

Abstract

The article attempts to consider the biographical and creative relations and mutual influence of three masters of the pen – E.N. Chirikov, on the one hand, and A.N. Tolstoy and his mother A.L. Tolstaya, on the other hand. Introduced in Samara in the 1890-ies, E. Chirikov and Tolstoy maintained relationships and maintained interest in each other’s work for many decades, as evidenced by correspondence, memoirs and works of art containing direct and indirect traces their mutual influence on each other. The latter is proved by the example of comparative analysis of the collected book by A.L. Tolstoy «Backwater» with the early stories of E.N. Chirikov «The Invalids» and «Strangers», as well as the «Mermaid Tales» by A.N. Tolstoy with the «Volga Tales» by E.N.Chirikov. There are similarities and differences between the «Samara» works of A. Tolstoy and the works of E. Chirikov written under the impression of life in Samara; similarities relate to the function of urban landscape in the works of two writers, the character of the image of the urban society, as well as the image of the main character’s attempts (heroes) to break the cycle of everyday life and break out of the “provincial” reality, or – to prove its inconsistency. The study of E. Chirikov and A. Tolstoy’s mutual influence was carried out on the material of the «Volga Fairy Tales» of the first and «Shredded Tales» of the second, analysis of which revealed the following: in both cases the fairytale allowed the writers to stop biographical experience, reality to enter with it into new value relations, or, in other words, fabulousness ensured the achievement of that very aesthetic distance, without which the artistic development of reality was impossible, which in the case of Tolstoy was still unfamiliar to him as a young writer, and in the case of Chirikov – too famous. The result of this consideration is the reconstruction of historical-literary plot, which was still outside the limits of literary scholarly attention.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):118-125
pages 118-125 views

«FAVORITE TRAM» IN SATIRICAL WORKS BY M. ZOSHCHENKO, I. ILF AND E. PETROV

Pozdnyakov K.S.

Abstract

The theme of the article is relevant, because at present there is a new understanding of the national literature of the 1920-ies-1930-ies: there are articles and monographs devoted to the works by V. Kataev, M. Zoshchenko, I. Ilf and E. Petrov and demonstrating a radically different approach to the texts by Soviet writers. The scientific novelty of the topic lies in the fact that the topos indicated in the title did not become the subject of consideration in literary articles and monographs before.
The purpose is: to restore the meanings generated by the studied topos. The objectives of the article are: a) to correlate the tram topos with the corresponding fragment of real space; b) to list the values and connotations associated with the tram topos; c) to formulate the functions of the characters in the context of the tram topos. The article uses the method of semiotic analysis of literary text. In addition to the texts by M. Zoshchenko, I. Ilf and E. Petrov, the fragments of the works by B. Pasternak, D. Kharms, M. Bulgakov, and folklore sources are analyzed. In theoretical terms, the article is based on the research by V. Propp, V. Prokofieva, A. Zholkovsky.
The following conclusions were made in the article: the topos of the tram creates the meanings of ceremonial and ritual character (this refers to initiation rites and funerals). Initiation is directly related to the communal/collective body, a part of which a soviet individual must become. Death appears to be a punishment prepared for the character who failed to pass a series of ritual tests.
Thus, the study of such topos, correlating with fragments of real space, seems promising for consideration of the Russian literature of the 1920-ies-1930-ies and its history. In this regard, the topos of the communal apartment and of the soviet bureaucratic institution are of interest, as they largely determined the genesis and development of the soviet mythology.
Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):126-131
pages 126-131 views

VLADIMIR SOROKIN AND RUSSIAN AVANT-GARDE

Kazarina T.V.

Abstract

This article discusses the relationship of Vladimir Sorokin’s literary work with the ideological and aesthetic attitudes of the Russian avant-garde. According to the author, to create a picture of the world Sorokin alternately refers to the methods of artistic research, characteristic of different generations of Russian avant–garde – cubofuturists, oberiuts and conceptualists – with a common focus on the fundamental problems of life, first of all – on the relationship between nature and culture as the basis of the world order. However, the natural life that takes place outside the framework of cultural conventions in the texts of Sorokin loses its appeal, is endowed with features of chaotic, low-lying physiological reality. In the modern understanding of the writer, all the «wild» that only is in man, being uncontrolled, was the «animal» in the worst sense of the word and manifests itself in appalling scenes of murder, cannibalism, coprophagia, etc. Therefore, the triumph of nature in the image of this author gives rise to a bloody nightmare or – if there is a cancellation of cultural conventions and the rivalry of nature and culture comes to naught – leads to entropy, the extinction of the energy of being. The balance of nature and culture, according to Sorokin, is possible, but gives a temporary and unreliable result. Demonstrating one or the other possibilities of interaction of the beginnings of life, Sorokin follows the ways of his predecessors – the avant-garde. The obvious goal of the author is to prevent re-appeal to the ideas that once led to a deadlock Russian culture and Russian society. The article analyzes the early stories of Vladimir Sorokin, novels «Norma», «Day of Oprichnik», «Manaraga» and other texts of the writer.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):132-138
pages 132-138 views

TERM «ALTERNATIVE» IN MODERN RUSSIAN PROSE (ON THE MATERIAL OF NOVELS «LAVR» AND «AVIATOR» BY EVGENY VODOLAZKIN AND «ZULEIKHA OPENS HER EYES» BY GUZEL YAKHINA)

Chernyshova T.L.

Abstract

In this very article the concepts of alternative and alternative history are researched within modern literary process on material of novels «Lavr» and «Aviator» by Evgeny Vodolazkin and «Zuleikha Opens Her Eyes» by Guzel Yakhina. To make this analysis wider and more versatile some works by other famous authors are involved. Among them, there are such novels as «Rakhil» by Andrey Gelasimov, «Sinologist» by Elena Chizhova and «Quest» by Boris Akunin.
As a matter of fact, alternative history as a science fiction genre means the development of historical happenings influenced by a number of circumstances. We consider alternative history in broad context, which means as the phenomenon of choice, variant, variation that are closely connected with the semantic of the word «alternative». The article provides readers with some researches of such literary alternative models as alternative сhronotope, alternative character, alternative history method.
Alternative chronotope involves augmented reality, the world created by the demiurge-character inside the common space-time work construction. Creating of such world is closely connected with trauma and with character’s try to protect himself from the outside influence.
The doubles are called in this research alternative characters since their paired existence, where each of them has its other variant. On material of novel «Aviator», the types of doubles are shown. Thus the system of characters is created. Contexture is built in a mirror-principal. With the help of such technique, the author creates the infinity and out-of-time effects.
The term «alternative history method» in this article means synthesis of fantastical and documental in the novels by Evgeny Vodolazkin. This combination defines genre uniqueness of authors’ books.
In this research work we also discuss the problem of genre mashup in Russian literature and integrated approach to the analysis of alternative-historical fantastic.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):139-143
pages 139-143 views

BETWEEN PEACE AND WAR: BILINGUAL GERMAN-RUSSIAN FRASEBOOK IN THE MILITARY DISCURSE

Dubinin S.I.

Abstract

The article discusses the features of architectonics, the lexical composition and interlanguage correspondence published in Kцnigsberg (East Prussia) at the beginning of the war against the USSR for the needs of the Third Reich Nazi army of the mass German-Russian phrasebook edited by G.F. Plumsch. This military phrasebook is generally evaluated as a coherent text in conjunction with material, ideological, and sociocultural factors. It is a pragmatically oriented text in the event-oriented aspect of the specific military situation and the militarist doctrine of the German Wehrmacht at the beginning of the war in 1941. A military phrasebook as a type, an active kind of transferable ideographic (thematic) dictionary with the prevailing translation function is focused on the communicative interests of the user in ensuring a minimum of communication in certain situations.

In the article, the main consumer of the compilation in the basis of Plumsch’s phrasebook – «the soldier of the nation» is evaluated as a model personality in the Nazi militaristic discourse of the institutional type. The prototype for the Plumsch dictionary was a travel phrasebook. Against the background of creating a positive image of the  soldier of the eastern front», Plumsch’s phrasebook reveals the communicative technologies of  hiding» verbal aggression and domination of Wehrmacht’s military personnel who often served as guards for forced labor.

The long-term, poor-quality compilation of the Plumsсh short dictionary, where the Russian language is represented indirectly, marks the invasion of military discourse in everyday / tourist discourse at the beginning of the war against the Soviet Union in a situation where Nazi military doctrine and practice were oriented towards a fast, victorious and economically convertible  Blitzkrieg».

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):144-149
pages 144-149 views

VERBAL REPRESENTATION OF THE CONCEPT «TERRORISM» IN THE NEWS DISCOURSE OF THE GERMAN MEDIA (ON THE MATERIAL OF INTERNET PORTALS)

Kukhareva M.Y.

Abstract

The article deals with the semantic load of the concept of «Terrorism», identifies the main schemes that reveal its meaning. Terrorism is understood as illegitimate, targeted violence used to spread fear and terror among civilians in order to achieve political goals by certain forces. Terrorist activities are a kind of dialogue between terrorist groups and the authorities. The communicative component of terrorist activities determines the important role of media in presenting the image of an event.
During the analysis of the corpus of factual material in German, the hypothesis of possibility of creating a universal cognitive model of the concept «Terrorism», built on the principle of the nominative field, was tested. The obligatory and secondary components of the scenario of the event characteristic for the investigated concept were revealed. The mandatory components include direct participants, namely the opposing subjects (terrorists – authorities) and the object (victims) of terrorist activity, their actions, the result and spatial and temporal localization of the event. Secondary elements include indirect participants in the event and their actions, purpose, means, circumstances and assessment of terrorist activities.
As a result of the analysis of nominative units of various lexical and semantic groups, verbalizing the mandatory structural components of the concept of «Terrorism» in the Internet portals of Germany, the following conclusions were made. Lexical and semantic means of expression of the concept «Terrorism» can be grouped by similar semantic features and arranged hierarchically. Their system is open and dynamic. Lexical and syntactic units of different levels (from words to sentences) serve to create an image of the event in news reports about terrorist attacks.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):150-158
pages 150-158 views

CODE-SWITCHING UND ANDERE FORMEN MULTILINGUALEN SPRECHENS IN GESPRÄCHEN DER FERNHEIMER MENNONITEN IN PARAGUAY

Tirza M.

Abstract

This paper is about the multilingualism and different types of multilingual speech in conversations of a group of Mennonites who live in the colony Fernheim in Paraguay (South America). These Mennonites are in contact with different languages and its varieties: They speak standard German in public domains, for example at church or at school, Mennonite Low German in private situations, for example with friends or at home, and Spanish with the Paraguayan population. The focus of this study lies on analyzing the distribution of the languages and varieties based on Joshua Fishmans (1967) concept of Diglossia. In a second step, the author examine code-switching, borrowings and transfers as a result of several languages and varieties being in contact. The phenomena are described on the base of a big corpus of spoken language which has been took during a field research stay in Paraguay.

Key words: multilingualism, code-switching, transfer, borrowing, Mennonites, conversational analysis, Diglossia, Mennonite Low German, spoken language

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):159-167
pages 159-167 views

LEXICOGRAPHIC ASPECTS OF FUNCTIONING OF THE CONCEPT «MEDICINE» IN MODERN ENGLISH

Golubykh A.A.

Abstract

Various aspects of the concept «medicine» functioning in modern English are considered in the terms of lexicographic discourse. The present research is motivated by current renovations within modern medical paradigm and by appearance of new medical terms registered in dictionaries, reference books, textbooks for doctors and medical professionals.
The analysis of lexicographic discourse is aimed at identifying synonymous and hypero-hyponymic links in the thematic groups of English nouns in the terms of linguocultural and medical terminological markers. The results of the present research provide a reliable interpretation of medical nomenclature in terms of lexicography. All medical terminological markers of the English lexicographic space have been grouped according to their semantic parameters into monosemantic and multivalent language units. In the process of their analysis the ways of adapting foreign monosemantic medical terms to the English discursive vector are systematized. Moreover etymological aspects of the verbal units under consideration are also described.
Multivalued units are characterized as the linguistic units with a significant semantic potential on the one hand and they also may be considered as a reliable basis for further semantic development of modern English vocabulary on the other hand. It has also been discovered that the specific feature of medical terminological field on the lexicographic level is its ability to be constantly replenished by synonymous groups created by means of specialization, generalization, metaphor, metonymy, and enantiosemy.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):168-174
pages 168-174 views

COGNITIVE AND PRAGMATIC ASPECTS OF FOOD REPRESENTATION IN THE BRITISH AND RUSSIAN MEDIA DISCOURSES

Shevchenko V.D.

Abstract

The present article is devoted to the problem of representing food in the British and Russian media discourses. The author analyzes social and linguistic factors of food representation in the media discourse, in particular, the ideas and social factors that influence the journalists as well as peculiarities of the linguistic forms of food representation. Particular attention is paid to the cognitive aspects: the author analyzes realization of a specific cognitive model within the media text. The author also studies the cognitive model components, which are foregrounded in the media texts, and the linguistic means used for this purpose. The reasons for this process are also investigated. The connection between cognitive model realization and the journalist’s pragmatic goal is also studied in the paper. The author comes to a conclusion that a new cognitive model is formed and fixed in the recipient’s mind, because its components contain information confirmed by data in the media text. The new model can be fixed only if a journalist manages to persuade the recipient using the factual data. We suppose that introduction and placement of a new cognitive model into the recipient’s mind results in changing his/her attitude towards British food. This can be viewed as a change in social reality, i.e. construction of new social reality, because the recipient in this case acquires a new feature – new attitude towards British food that affects his/her actions in real life. The author comes to a conclusion that the process of food representation in the British media discourse is determined by the aim of constructing a specific identity of the British nation, which differs from the identity that has existed before. The author also analyzes the process of constructing a new cognitive model within the Russian media discourse; this model is aimed at assessing the current market trends and economic and social situation in Russia.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):175-180
pages 175-180 views

REFLECTIVE SPACE OF THE POLEMICAL DISCOURSE

Udelkina A.I.

Abstract

With the sovereign advent of the Internet in all spheres of human life, qualitative changes have occurred in the former communicative model of the mass media. The development in the field of information technology has led to the formation of a new linguistic phenomenon – a newspaper text online format. The article is devoted to the study of the dialogical space of the polemical discourse of German-language printed media. The purpose of the study is to find an answer to the question of how the controversy is realized, how the reflexive space is formed, where many factors converge, like in focus: psychological, social and proper linguistic factors that determine the specific verbal behavior of modern communicators. The main communicative practices are distinguished: multimedia, hypertextuality and interactivity, which allow defining the phenomenon under study as a special communicative product, based on the interaction of subjects in the process of discussing a pressing problem. Special attention is paid to changing the direction of actions of the communicative process – the transition to the so-called «horizontal communication» according to the scheme «from many to many.» Online versions of newspapers and magazines offer users an interactive tool that makes it possible to control the content, feedback, participation in forums, commenting on articles. In addition to the usual comments, the article highlights a special kind of professional commentary – «polemical.» The evaluation and modal components of the polemical commentary are characterized by the presence of polar points of view, which creates a space of controversy, a space of reflexive dialogue, expanding the possibilities of the readership to join the discussion. The materials of the work represent a wide field for further work on the study of language regulators that guide communicative interaction in an infinitely variable communicative environment.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):181-188
pages 181-188 views

Рецензии

Review of the dictionary DIMITR VESELINOV, ANNA ANGELOVA «RECHNIK ON FRENSKY DUMI IN BULGARIAN EZIK» (In 6 Vols. Sofia: UNIVERSITETSKO IZDATELSTVO «SV. KLIMENT OKhRIDSKI», 2015–2017, 3337 p.)

Karpenko L.B.

Abstract

A new dictionary is always an event for the linguistic world. The appearance of a lexicographic source, prepared by high-level professionals, is doubly encouraging, since professional systematization of the facts with indication of the first fixation, variants, abundance of examples from fiction and journalism creates a reliable understanding of the language processes of interest to the authors. In this case, the dictionary in question demonstrates, on a large scale, a seemingly unexpected trend - the contacting of the Bulgarian and French languages over the past few centuries and the Bulgarian language's perception of a significant number of French words.
Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2018;24(4):189-191
pages 189-191 views

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