Vol 14, No 1 (2015)

Full Issue

AIRCRAFT AND SPACE ROCKET ENGINEERING
Development of a solar battery orientation robot system for small spacecraft
Beznyakov A.M., Vlasov V.A., Malenin E.N.
Abstract

Possibilities of robotization of an aircraft solar battery orientation system on the basis of a microprocessor are outlined in the paper. Robotization makes it possible to enhance the system’s independence and widen the functionality of its control device. An option of robotization of a solar battery orientation electric drive based on a PIC16F873А microcontroller for small spacecraft is discussed. This implementation of a control device makes possible solar battery orientation to the Sun. It also allows controlling the temperature and illumination of the solar batteries, continuous adjustment of the solar batteries’ capacity at the optimal   point of the current-voltage characteristics, controlling the process of charging and discharging of the battery, controlling voltage stabilization on the power buses and communicating the information about emergencies to the onboard digital computer. Besides, an autonomous mode of operation- a “servo-drive” is implemented in the proposed control system. The results of structural and mathematical modeling of a similar system and its implementation in the form of a physical model are presented. The developed model of a solar battery orientation system makes it possible to analyze the system’s operability in various modes, the integration of its separate elements and units in a laboratory environment and also to make the system operate under the control of a personal computer or off line with a microcontroller program.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):9-17
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Research of small spacecraft dynamiсs taking into account the influence of elastic vibrations of asjacent solar panels and aerodynamic moment
Yelenev V.D., Titov B.A., Davydov E.I., Davydov I.E., Kochyan A.G., Yudintsev V.V.
Abstract

The article presents the analysis of the dynamics of small spacecraft (SS) with affixed solar panels which have a certain degree of elasticity due to their construction. A mathematical model of spacecraft disturbed motion during the boost phase is formed which takes into account the body elasticity and the presence of liquid filling. A finite-dimensional system of equations of SS elastic disturbed motion is formed in the process of constructing the model taking into account power dissipation. The issues of elastic vibrations that appear after the dynamic operations connected with SS re-orientation or reconstruction of some of its elements are discussed. Research has been conducted using a modeling complex to estimate the influence of elastic vibrations of the SS structure on the precision and dynamic characteristics of the control system such as the analysis of transition process duration and maximum amplitude of variations of the measured value of SS angular velocity. Dependences of SS angular speed on time have been obtained. The analysis of the results obtained shows that elastic vibrations of the SS structure have a strong impact on spacecraft dynamics in the spinning mode. It is noted that the vibrations in the pitch channel are the most crucial, It is there that vibrations  “out of the panel plane” and twist modes relative to  the symmetry axis of opened panel flaps take place  in the  nominal position of solar panels. Moreover, spacecraft motion during the process of its separation from the space rocket is discussed taking into account the influence of small aerodynamic moment.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):25-35
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Optimization of fatique validation cost for redesigned transport aircraft
Kleptsov V.I.
Abstract

An approach to fatigue validation of transport aircraft redesigned structure based on the data of endurance tests of basic aircraft, computational and experimental analyses, ground-based and flight tests of modified aircraft that do not require  building and testing of a full-scale modified airframe is proposed in the paper. An example of a modified aircraft developed at Beriev Aircraft Company is presented. Components of a computational cluster that ensures calculation and postprocessing of models of the required dimensions are chosen. The advantages of using a solid model in commercial production of aircraft are demonstrated. Prospective use of solid-state assembly for damage diagnosis using the criterion of variations in the forms of natural vibration of a structure with cracks in operation is shown. Algorithms and software for the identification of vibration forms and frequencies of aircraft in flight under atmospheric turbulence are developed on the basis of the analysis of the structure’s response to wide-band disturbance using up-to-date digital measuring equipment. Ways of taking into account the damage accumulated in operation not only by operating time (flight hours, number of landings), but also by the equivalent bending moment in the control sections of the airframe are presented. The implementation of the proposed technologies will make it possible to obtain economical effect at all stages of the product life cycle, from design to operation.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):36-45
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Electrization of the surface of low-orbiting small spacecraft “AIST”
Syomkin N.D., Bragin V.V., Piyakov A.V., Telegin A.M., Ryazanov D.M., Matviets M.G.
Abstract

The article presents the results of a space experiment that analyzed the process of electrization of low-orbit satellites. The research of the process of electrization took place on the small spacecraft "AIST-L" (flight) and "AIST-T" (technological) using the "Meteor” scientific equipment. The equipment includes multi-sensors that measure the temperature, illumination and electrification. The experiment revealed significant correlation between the process of differential charging of the apparatus and the external factors of space environment. The influence of   both controlled and uncontrolled flight modes on the electrization of low-orbit satellites was estimated. The mode of micro acceleration compensation is controlled by three orthogonally arranged solenoids. The data obtained make it possible to assess the density of the flow of electrons falling on the surface of the sensor, and confirm the mathematical model of spacecraft electrization proposed in the article and based on the method of integral equations. The model takes into account the effect of shielding the redistribution of charges on the surface of the spacecraft by plasma.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):46-57
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Device for monitoring radiation situation on spacecraft
Syomkin N.D., Plokhotnichenko P.G., Ilyin A.B., Kalaev M.P., Ryazanov D.M., Pomel'nikov P.A.
Abstract

The results of experiments carried out both in our country and abroad in 1990s, 2000s to study the impact of radiation on the electronic equipment of space vehicles are presented in the paper. General characteristics of factors of space are given as well as characteristics of ionizing radiation. A concept of constructing a device for the control of the impact of space ionizing radiation on individual elements of spacecraft onboard equipment is proposed. Failures caused by space ionizing radiation in integrated chips are discussed, their classification is given. Radiation monitors such as Radiation Environment Monitor, Standard Radiation Environment Monitor, Cosmic-Ray Effects and Dosimetry, Prisma-3, STEP-F, MIS-dosimeters (RadFET) used in the experiments are discussed. Characteristics of radiation monitors, general principles of measuring characteristics of ionizing radiation are also discussed. The “DH-DMS” complex of equipment for carrying out an experiment to study the impact of space environment factors on samples of optical elements, coverings and electronic components is presented. The “ERI IP” module intended for carrying out an experiment to study the impact of space ionizing radiation on electronic equipment of foreign production is described (commercial off-the-shelf – COTS). Chips of Atmega168PA, STM32F303, AM29F010b, AM24C32 are tested In the experiment.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):58-72
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Missile control on the basis of construction of attainability domains
Tolpegin O.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with the application of attainability domains for the solution of missile control problems.  Methods of calculating the attainability domains are analyzed and two examples of calculating the attainability domains of a missile are given. A set of problems is presented for the solution of which the attainability domains were used. A conflicting problem of “approach-evasion” of two missiles with and without taking account of errors of measurements of motion parameters is discussed. The problem is considered as a differential game of two players with opposite interests. Controls of the players are selected at discrete points in time, based on the analysis of the relative position of attainability domains constructed for a number of the future meeting time points. If the errors of measuring are taken into account the attainability domains are constructed not from the current position but from the information domains that contain the exact values of the motion parameters. The approach problem of two missiles with a maneuvering object is presented in the form of a coalition differential game. In this case the combined attainability domains of the missiles are constructed. Minimax attainability domains constructed taking into account the action of disturbances are used in the problem of synthesis of normal acceleration of the missile under the action of disturbances. In the final part of the paper we discuss the problem of minimax filtration of the missile motion parameters in which information domains including the attainability domain of the missile are approximated by the parallelepipeds in the phase space under consideration.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):73-82
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Concept of multilevel adaptation of integrated navigation systems of small spacecraft
Fominov I.V.
Abstract

The concept of constructing an adaptive on-board information and measuring complex of small spacecraft is discussed in the paper. The developed concept of multilevel adaptation of integrated navigation systems of small spacecraft provides the required accuracy and survivability in conditions of influencing factors and emergency situations. Lack of clearly defined information-measuring core inherent in modern integrated navigation systems of different moving objects is a distinctive feature of the proposed concept. Basic information of a navigation system with respect to which correction of other systems is supposed to be carried out is formed in accordance with the situation determined by the level of disturbances and failures taking place, as well as modes of operation of small spacecraft. The concept involves three levels: parametric, information and structural adaptation. The parametric level assumes automatic tuning of the parameters of measuring system sensors to ensure the best mode of operation in terms of accuracy. The information level of adaptation provides the required accuracy of determining the parameters of orientation and navigation through the implementation of an adaptive method of complex processing of navigational information. The structural layer provides the system’s self-organization that consists in providing the control of modes of operation of measuring equipment and information resources to ensure the integrity of navigation information in a contingency situation. Methods of system analysis were used in developing the concept of multi-level adaptation of an adaptive on-board information and measuring complex of small spacecraft.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):83-91
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Method of parametric optimization of each component of adaptive compensatng inertial sensors operating in a self-oscilation mode
Fominov I.V.
Abstract

The paper deals with a crucial task of parametric optimization of an adaptive inertial sensor capable of varying the parameters in order to reduce errors which are caused by the influence of high-frequency transient disturbances. A method of parametric optimization of each component that makes it possible to vary the parameters of the nonlinear element of a compensating inertial sensor operating in the self-oscillation mode is developed. The method was tested with a pendulous accelerometer taken as an example. Numerical investigations confirmed the possibility of filtering external vibrations and internal noise of the inertial sensor while maintaining its sensitivity in the required measuring range due to the synthesis of the adaptive loop based on a non-linear element of the "hysteresis loop" type. The essence of the method is based on parametric synthesis of the adaptive loop with a nonlinear element. Numerical investigations show that the error of the pendulous accelerometer can be reduced, on the average, by an order of magnitude thanks to the adaptive parameter setting of the non-linear element, depending on the amplitude of the external vibrations. The above method of parametric optimization of each component can be applied to most compensating inertial sensors measuring motion parameters of spacecraft operating in conditions of non-stationary external and internal disturbances. The adaptation circuit in adaptive inertial sensors can be implemented through the use of modern microcontrollers.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):92-100
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Analytical evaluation of the accuracy of spacecraft autonomous navigation according to the results of flight altitude adaptive measurement
Golyakov A.D., Fominov I.V.
Abstract

The article presents the results of analyzing the accuracy of spacecraft autonomous navigation the orbital mission of which takes place in conditions of perturbations of space. Flight altitude is taken as a parameter to be measured. An adaptive altimeter, capable of performing the reconfiguration of its structure in the event of disturbing factors is chosen as a means of dealing with the disturbing influence. Covariance matrices of errors in determining the parameters of the spacecraft center of mass are obtained analytically. Analytical evaluation of the accuracy of the adaptive altimeter is based on the theory of analytical evaluation of navigation systems using celestial radio engineering measuring devices. Expressions used for calculating the estimates of spacecraft navigation error covariance matrix elements by measuring the altitude obtained in the process of certain investigations in the absence of perturbations are a special case of the results presented in the paper. Tasks that emerge at the stage of justification of the navigation system design, for example, the task of specifying requirements for errors of airborne altimeters, can be solved with the help of the analytical estimates obtained. Such estimates are functions of dispersions of altimeters mounted on board the spacecraft.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):18-24
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND POWER ENGINEERING
Computer-aided design of aircraft gas turbine engines and selection of materials for their main parts
Akhmedzyanov D.A., Kishalov A.E., Markina K.V.
Abstract

The problem of aircraft gas turbine engine computer-aided design is dealt with in the article. An expert system for the selection of materials, coatings and other kinds of preparing surfaces of the main components and assembly units of the aircraft gas turbine engine flow section at the design stage developed on the basis of thermogasdynamic simulation modeling of DVIGw aviation engines is described.  The system performs thermal gas calculation of the engine and its main components, develops the most likely structure of the main parts, estimates the thermal state of air-gas channel elements, makes an approximate strength prediction of the main elements and assembly units, analyzes the applicability of the materials from the developed database, generates the list of the most applicable materials, offers possible variants of coatings and heat treatment conditions. A topological model of two-spool mixed flow turbofan with an afterburner chamber for military high-maneuverability aircraft in the developed expert system is presented in the article. Some results of modeling and choosing materials for the main engine parts are presented. It is shown that the expert system can analyze both metallic and composite materials. For composite materials a unidirectional orthotropic composite material is designed on the basis of the composite materials database and its properties at the existing flow temperatures are predicted. The main advantage of using this method is time and labor saving in the process of designing new aircraft engines and their main parts.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):101-111
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Vortex cleaning of fuel tank pressurant gas
Biryuk V.V., Shimanov A.A., Onoprienko D.A., Smorodin A.V., Shepelev A.I.
Abstract

One of the problems of space launch vehicle fuel tanks using gas pressure accumulators is dealt with in the article. Helium mixed with gas generator gases is used as a pressure gas accumulator, which makes it possible to increase the specific volume of pressurant gas and decrease the mass of the system. Gas generator gas comprises carbon particles that cause fast clogging of the filter, which leads to a contingency and charge pressure drop. The use of soot-cleaning vortex apparatus was suggested for efficient fail-safe operation of the tank pressurization system. Different types of vortex soot- cleaning devices were considered. A reverse-flow cyclone was chosen as the most appropriate type of vortex soot cleaner for a fuel tank pressurization system. The required soot cleaner was designed and its flow part was modeled. A finite element mesh was obtained and boundary conditions were set. Numerical modeling of the soot cleaning process was carried out in a reverse-flow cyclone with the help of ANSYS Fluent. Fields of soot particle distribution and the character of their motion in the reverse-flow cyclone were plotted.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):112-120
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Study of characteristics of the launch vehicle fuel line gas damper
Gimadiev A.G., Odinokov D.A., Stadnik D.M., Greshnyakov P.I.
Abstract

Ensuring the longitudinal stability and quality of regulation of a liquid-propellant launch vehicle is very important in its development and operation. It is known that the use of gas dampers installed in the feed line is one of the effective ways to provide longitudinal stability of a launch vehicle. Correct choice of damper characteristics makes it possible to eliminate the possibility of coinciding of the natural frequencies of oscillations of pressure of the liquid in the feed line and in the launch vehicle body and thus to ensure the longitudinal stability. Methods of mathematical and numerical simulation are applied for the analysis of gas damper characteristics using the software package MatLab/Simulink and AMESim. The paper presents a mathematical model of the gas damper, its transient and frequency responses are analyzed. The acoustic conductance of the gas damper is calculated as its generalized dynamic characteristics. Variations of volume are plotted as a function of liquid pressure at the damper inlet in case of harmonic oscillations. The developed model of the gas damper can be used in analyzing the frequency response of the fuel feed line in the framework of solving the problem of ensuring the longitudinal stability of a launch vehicle.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):121-131
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Possibility of using a bi-directional impulse turbine in a thermo-acoustic engine
Dovgjallo A.I., Shimanov A.A.
Abstract

The paper is devoted to one of engine types with external heating – a thermoacoustic engine. Ways of transforming the energy of a shock wave of oscillating gas flow into electric energy are discussed. The authors suggest using a bidirectional impulse turbine as an energy converter. The distinctive feature of this kind of turbine is that the shock wave of oscillating gas flow passing through the turbine is reflected and passes through the turbine again in the opposite direction. The direction of turbine rotation does not change in the process. Different types of bidirectional impulse turbines for thermoacoustic engines are analyzed. The Wells turbine is the simplest and least efficient of them. A radial impulse turbine has more complicated design and is more efficient than the Wells turbine. The most appropriate type of impulse turbine was chosen. This type is an axial impulse turbine which has a simpler design than that of a radial turbine and similar efficiency. The peculiarities of the method of calculating an impulse turbine are discussed. They include changes in gas pressure and velocity as functions of time during the generation of gas oscillating flow shock waves in a thermoacoustic system. 

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):132-138
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Experimental study of free-convection flame propagation
Yevdokimov O.A., Guryanov A.I.
Abstract

The results of studying the burnout of diffusion jets flowing into stationary atmosphere in laminar, transitional and turbulent flows with the direction of the initial pulse in the range of angles α from 0° to 360° relative to the vertical are presented in the paper. Experimental data on the values of relative curvilinear flame length, its projections on the axes Ox, Oy, the coordinates of the flame stabilization point in the range of Reynolds numbers from = 500 to Re = 15000 as functions of angle α are obtained. The experimental data are presented in the form of characteristic curves and summarized as criteria equations that take into account the effect of free convection in the framework of the theory of jet torch burning on the position of the flame front, the geometry and volume of the combustion zone The results of photographing the process of jet combustion are presented. Recommendations on how to improve the combustion efficiency and the choice of optimal primary, geometrical and thermal parameters of the jet (Re number, Fr number, the relative length of the jet, the initial diameter of the jet, the position of the flame stabilization point, the angle relative to vertical) are given, and the thermophysical characteristics of diffusion reacting gas jet formation with account of free convection are shown.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):139-146
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Application of dynamic modeling to the evaluation of influence of strengthening treatment on fatigue resistance
Kostichev V.E.
Abstract

A method of dynamic analysis of a strain-stress state in parts of an internal-combustion engine with stress concentrators has been worked out. The method gives an opportunity to take into account the rise of the fatigue resistance due to strengthening treatment, to choose the optimal mode of surface hardening and its regimes, to develop the technological and designing activities aimed at improving the fatigue resistance characteristics of the parts. The method has been tested drawing on the example of rolled cylindrical specimens, the results have been confirmed by experimental data. Failure zones of the crankshaft as the most strained part of a combustion engine in the operation process have been investigated and determined on the basis of metallographic analysis and reclamation data carried out at the Open Joint-Stock Company “Auto diesel” (YMZ). Finite-element models of the engine YMZ-238 crankshaft have been constructed using the ANSYS/LS-DYNA software complex. The models make it possible to evaluate the influence of hardening on the fatigue resistance under operating loads and boundary conditions corresponding to the real working regimes of the YMZ-238 engine and the area of initiation of fatigue macro cracks causing the destruction.  On the basis of the results obtained in solving a production problem using the proposed method and confirmed by the reclamation analysis designing and technological activities aimed at ensuring the required level of crankshaft fatigue resistance due to the optimization of hardening treatment regimes have been proposed

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):147-153
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Numerical simulation of heat transfer from a swirling flow to the lateral side of the vortex tube energy separation chamber
Piralishvili S.A., Sokolova A.A.
Abstract

The results of investigation of heat transfer from an intensive swirling flow of gas to the lateral side of the vortex tube energy separation chamber are presented in the paper. The distribution of the heat transfer coefficient along the energy separation chamber is specified taking into account the effect of damping of the circumferential velocity component and the effect of heating of a potential peripheral whirl.  Numerical calculations, the results of which are presented in this paper show the presence of a paraxial precessing vortex core and large-scale vortex structures - toroidal vortices periodically arranged on the periphery along the axis in the energy separation chamber. The dependence of the heat transfer coefficient on the value of the ratio of expansion of gas in the vortex tube, as well as changes in the temperature efficiency caused by increasing the energy separation chamber diameter is presented. It is shown that non-adiabacy has a greater effect on the thermodynamic efficiency of small-scale vortex tubes due to the increase of the relative fraction of the energy rejected from the lateral side in the form of heat.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):162-167
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Common properties of hydrocarbon combustion products and Brayton cycle
Mikheenkov E.L.
Abstract

The energy released in the process of combustion of substances is the source of thermal energy in cycles of heat engines, while the combustion products are working media in the expansion processes.  The composition of all combustibles is their common property - they are all hydrocarbons, i.e. their molecules consist of carbon and hydrogen atoms. This article will examine only the products of stoichiometric combustion – the oxidation of fuel components in the environment of atmospheric air. Products of combustion are mixtures of oxides of the constituent elements and the basic element of air - nitrogen. It is the combustion products that determine the expansion processes in the most common cycle of power plant operation- the Brayton cycle. The possibility of accurate calculation of combustion products’ properties in a fairly broad range of temperatures is required. One of the methods of calculating the properties of the major constituents of hydrocarbon stoichiometric combustion is presented in the paper.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):154-161
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ELECTRONICS, MEASURING EQUIPMENT, RADIO ENGINEERING AND COMMUNICATION
Modeling the process of charging microparticles in the chamber of an electrostatic injector
Syomkin N.D., Vidmanov A.S.
Abstract

Mechanisms of charging microparticles in the area of the electrostatic injector needle are analyzed in the paper. The main attention is paid to the process of charging the conductive particles due to the emission of electrons from its surface under the influence of strong electrostatic field. A mathematical model of contact and contactless charging of particles is described. The results of solving a system of equations describing the dynamics of charging and the motion of the microparticle in the area of the injector charge needle are presented. The values of the relationship between the microparticle’s charge and its mass at the outlet of the electrostatic injector for different diameters of the charging needle and sizes of microparticles are calculated. A comparative analysis of the results of calculating the values of the relationship between the charge of a microparticle and its weight depending on the charging mechanisms and parameters of the microparticles and the charging needle is carried out. The results of calculating the maximum possible values of the relationship between the charge received by the microparticle in the injector and its mass depending on the charging mechanism are presented. The dependence of the values of the relationship between the charge of a particle and its mass on the distance from the needle at the beginning of autoelectronic emission from the particle surface is shown. The values of the relationship between the microparticle’s charge and its mass at the outlet of the electrostatic injector for real initial values of the particle velocities and charges in the charging chamber are calculated.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):168-176
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Rail electromagnetic accelerators with an external magnetic field
Sukhachev K.I.
Abstract

The main problems of using electromagnetic rail accelerators to accelerate solid bodies of the millimeter range are outlined in the paper. A modernized system of biasing a rail gun is presented, its operating principle is described. Mathematical modeling of the rail gun system with and without bias for accelerated bodies of different mass is carried out. The influence of the bias system on the basic parameters of electromagnetic rail accelerators is analyzed.  The acceleration forces acting on the object from the main loop and the bias circuit are plotted, as well as armature velocities and magnetic field induction in the object accelerated. The limits of applicability of the model described are given. Several variants of the design of rail gun bias systems including a multi-stage one are presented. The effect of some of the initial conditions on the acceleration of an object in the channel of the rail electromagnetic accelerator is analyzed. The effectiveness of introducing an external magnetic field in the channel of the accelerator making it possible to increase the speed of the lifter more than twice, while maintaining the resource of rail electrodes, is shown.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):177-189
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CONTROL, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
Theoretical investigation of vortex Gaussian beams focusing along the axis of the crystal
Khonina S.N., Volotovsky S.G., Ustinov A., Krasnov A.P.
Abstract

In this paper we investigate analytically and numerically sharp focusing of uniformly polarized laser Gaussian beams with a vortex phase along the axis of an anisotropic crystal. Two models are used for the analysis: geometrical optics, implemented in the software product ZEMAX, and wave optics based on the expansion in plane waves. An analytical expression is obtained in the frame of nonparaxial wave optics for a complex amplitude in focusing a vortex Gaussian beam in an anisotropic medium. It is shown that when focusing is weak ordinary and extraordinary beams are mixed and the beam formed has a mixed "spiral" type of polarization. In case of sharp focusing two focuses corresponding to the ordinary and extraordinary beams are formed along the crystal axis. If a first-order vortex phase is present in an incident beam with circular polarization cylindrical vector distributions with azimuthal polarization for the ordinary beam and those with radial polarization for the extraordinary beam occur in these focuses. Analytical calculations are illustrated by the results of numerical simulation. Both the intensity distribution for components of the generated laser fields and their polarization states are shown in detail. The studies completed are useful for the development of devices that perform polarization conversion.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):190-206
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ECONOMICS AND HUMANITIES
State science and technology policy in the Soviet Union during the pre-war period
Bannikova N.F.
Abstract

The article attempts to identify the features of the state science and technology policy of the Soviet Republic in the pre-war period. The main purpose of the science and technology policy is strengthening of defense capability of the country. Attention is given to the main areas of activity of the Soviet government: involvement of pre-revolutionary professionals and scientists in solving the most important scientific and technical problems, preservation and development of scientific and technical potential, training of new scientific and engineering manpower, creating  links between science and production, providing scientists and engineering workers with special scientific technical literature, opening new research institutes, design bureaus and universities in accordance with the development of new industries of the national economy: aviation, chemical, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering. The role of technical and scientific societies and inventions in the acceleration of scientific technical progress is revealed. The main contradictions of accomplishing engineering tasks in conditions of the formation of the totalitarian system when the creative initiative of scientists and specialists was dictated by the authorities are shown. The strengthening of the role of People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs in technical modernization of the country is also discussed in the paper.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):207-224
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Correlation between science and worldview in the light of M. Heidegger’s fundamental ontology
Demin I.V.
Abstract

The article clarifies the correlation between science, philosophy and worldview in the light of M. Heidegger’s fundamental ontology. The worldview, according to Heidegger, is a way of self-understanding and self-interpretation of man in the modern (modern European) science. Both worldview and private sciences have a positive character. That means that ideology, like private sciences, deals with things and not with existence. The question of worldview (the correlation between philosophy and worldview) is essential for the institutional identity of phenomenological philosophy as such. The author shows that the specific character and originality of Heidegger's philosophical project (“fundamental ontology”) is largely connected with a consistent and essential distinction between philosophy and worldview. The relation of the phenomenon of worldview with humanism and anthropocentrism is explained. According to Heidegger, humanism and anthropocentrism are part of any worldview, worldview as such, not only a certain type of worldview. The meaning of Heidegger’s disidentification of the concepts of “essence” (Seiende) and “object” (Gegenstand) for fundamental ontology in general and the interpretation of ideology and science in particular is identified. It is established that, as a rule, Heidegger understands “science” not as the totality of  positive sciences (sciences of the essence), and not as a special type of perception, but as the dimension of the being of essence and the way of entity of essence, that was established and became dominant in European culture of the modern age.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):225-234
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The essence of technical consciousness within the frame of the semiotic approach
Nesterov A.Y.
Abstract

The author considers the matter of technology essence within the frame of the semiotic approach. By a technology is meant a projective way of  the work of consciousness with signs which consists in the reversion of reception and leads to the creation of new “meanings” while realizing semantic, syntactic  and pragmatic rules at each level of cognition, whether it is sense perception, understanding (Verstand) or reason (Vernunft). Technical consciousness is considered within three levels. On the first level it is treated as “tradition” and technology is defined as unconscious activity complying with certain rules and providing survival in the natural environment. On the second level it is treated as “the second nature” and technology is defined as the process of creation of something new, which is possible in case of control over matter. It replaces the natural environment with an artificial one.  On the third level it is treated as “the third nature” and technology is a means of control over reflection. Technical consciousness described as projective semiosis shows the evolution of an individual from tradition to neomankind.  Having been born, a human masters the skills transmitted by cultural memory, which provides survival in natural habitat. Fantasy, fiction and metaphysical conception generated by astonishment, aesthetic experience or a practical problem provoke processes of self-comprehension and make it possible (indirectly) to see the reflexive character of practical activity. The ability to embody fictional objects in material substrates generates the second nature which replaces natural objects of perception and presentation. The ability to modify rules of reflection leads to deliberate  and controlled self-evolution of a human being by means of creation of “the third nature”, where a human being becomes a neohuman being who is capable of changing the quality of one’s existence as a reflexive creature.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):235-246
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Analysis of technological parameters of production (methodological aspect)
Sosnina T.N.
Abstract

Technological parameters of production are analyzed using the basic triad of concepts: conditional, primary and secondary objects of labor. The conclusion about the unique feature of the subject of labor to fix the pros and cons of man’s production effort and means of his activities is reasoned. We propose to consider the object of labor as a non-differentiable combination of the natural (substrate) and the social (abstract and concrete labor implemented in the substrate). It operates in a technological space - time (a thing - the process of becoming a thing). In any situation, the primary object of labor (mining technology) is preceded by a conditional object (research tech), finished or end product is preceded by a secondary object of labor (processing technology). The points of technological restrictions identify the parameters of the optimal technological mode for the system "man - tool – object of labor" with regard to economic, social and environmental components.  Technological parameters are specified by examples of technological chains (traditional and innovative) of individual enterprises, production units of cluster and network types. Postulates of the theory of object of labor reflect the methodologically important status of technologies of any kind of production-material, spiritual, virtual and social.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2015;14(1):247-257
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