Vol 28, No 3 (2022)

Full Issue

Articles

New Zakamskaya line: organization and maintenance of the defense system

Dubman E.L.

Abstract

The article studies the totality of military, fortification and other features of the New Zakamskaya Line as a defensive line of the South-East of European Russia. The author continued a more in-depth study of the problems of Russian field defensive architecture, which he had previously touched upon in his monograph, as well as in publications of recent years. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of aspects that were previously considered superficially or practically untouched. The fortifications and garrisons of the Novaya Zakamskaya line were chosen as the object of study. In particular, the problem of the sufficiency of the landmilitia forces for the effective protection of such extended borders was highlighted. The ways of using the space of the internal ranges of fortresses and feldshans and the fortifications that defended them to place guns and soldiers during enemy attacks are considered. Particular attention was paid to the presence of auxiliary buildings in the bastion trenches and redoubts: powder magazines, shops, guardrooms, wells, etc. For a comparative analysis of the defensive systems of the European South and South-East, conclusions and specific data obtained from the study of the lines under construction or reconstructed at the same time as the Novaya Zakamskaya, Ukrainian and Tsaritsynskaya lines were used. The historiographic basis for the study of this problem was, first of all, fundamental research on the history of fortification undertaken by F.F. Laskovsky, A.Z. Telyakovsky and a number of other military historians, including those, which were published recently. The source base for studying the proposed issues are, first of all, unpublished sources from the funds of the central archives. It is also necessary to point on materials from field surveys and archaeological excavations. The obtained results confirmed the earlier conclusion that the basic principles in the construction of a defensive line in the Trans-Volga region for the military leadership of the country in the first half of the 1730-ies were following the patterns of Western European fortification and using the land militia as the main military force to protect the border lines, as in Ukraine

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):8-19
pages 8-19 views

Reflection of animistic ideas in the Mordovian funeral and memorial rite

Sosnovsky A.V.

Abstract

In the article, the author made an attempt to identify the most archaic features of the Mordovian funeral and memorial rites. The relevance of this study is determined by the importance of preserving the cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia, the interest in their national traditions and their origins. The research is based on both archival and published historical sources, as well as on the works of scientists who have considered various aspects of the Mordovian funeral rites. The use of comparative typological and structural-semantic methods made it possible to identify not only archaic elements of funeral and memorial rites, but also to determine their symbolism. In the funeral and memorial rites of the Mordovians, the real living conditions of the Mordovian people were reflected. Living in a forest area, before the appearance of ground burials at the beginning of the first millennium AD, the Mordvins buried the dead in trees, which may have led to their animistic views on trees as receptacles of souls and spirits. Such ideas are a universal phenomenon for the peoples of the forest zone. With the change in the method of burial, the symbolism of the tree continues to play an important role in the funeral and memorial rite. In the course of the study, it was revealed that echoes of such archaic survivor traits as the belief about the incarnation of the souls of the dead in trees can be found in the Mordovian funeral rite up to the present time. Similar phenomena are typical for other peoples of the Volga region – the Mari, the Chuvash. In the funeral rites, as a later phenomenon, they were preserved in the funeral rites of the 40th day until the beginning of the XX century, but by the end of the XX century their meaning is lost

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):20-27
pages 20-27 views

Causes and consequences of truck production predominance in the Soviet automotive industry in the first half of the XX century

Prokofeva E.Y.

Abstract

A significant predominance of the number of produced trucks over the number of passenger cars was a feature of domestic automotive industry development until the 70-ies of the XX century. This fact did not correspond to the global vector of automotive industry development. The paper analyses the causes and consequences of this phenomenon by involving mainly a corpus of statistical sources of Russian and foreign origin. The socialist foundation of the political structure of the state and the focus on the development of heavy industry in the economy are identified as the fundamental factors that determined the specifics of Russian automotive industry strategy. By comparing the volumes of freight turnover of railway, river and road transport, the length of communication routes of various types both within the USSR and with the corresponding indicators of foreign countries, the author picks out the features of the Russian transport system that determined the containment of the USSR automotive industry development as a whole and the passenger car industry in particular. The paper denotes poverty and low level of education going with it to be among the social phenomena that prevented the mass distribution of passenger cars in the USSR and did not allow to form consumers of passenger car industry products in the country. Based on domestic and foreign data sources, the article concludes about the stability, regularity and validity of the predominance of produced trucks over passenger cars in the economic development of the country in comparison with the pan-European ones. It is noted that among others the result of this sectoral strategy is the contribution of truck production to the industrial breakthrough of the USSR in the 30-ies and the victory over Nazi Germany and Japan in 1941–1945 as well as a complex of diverse phenomena that exhibited in various sectors of social and economic life of the Soviet Union. The author claims that the change in the ratio of manufactured trucks and passenger cars in favour of the latter occurred in the 70-ies of the XX century as a result of the victory in the inter-party struggle of the concept of ‘peaceful coexistence’. The use of new data allowed the author to identify the influence of politics in the Soviet socialist state on the development strategy of the automotive industry as one of the key sectors of the economy

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):28-39
pages 28-39 views

Problem of shortage of consumer goods in the city of Kuibyshev during the period of perestroika

Razumov N.V., Leonov M.I.

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of shortage of consumer goods during the period of perestroika. This historical aspect is one of the key aspects in the study of the daily life of Soviet society. The purpose of the study was to determine the causes of the deficit, to analyze methods to overcome it. The article also examines various phenomena of deficit manifestation: queues, coupons, and the «black market». To develop these goals, various approaches and methods were used: historical-systemic, historical-genetic, comparative-historical and historical-dynamic, quantitative and others. Analysis of archival historical sources, workers’ complaints, reports of government and party organizations, materials of historical interviews. As a result, it was found that the deficit had a huge impact on the socio-political climate in the USSR. Its manifestations became an integral part of everyday life, and every year the situation with the supply of goods became worse. Similar questions were raised by historians earlier, they were studied on materials from other regions of the Middle Volga region, however, a comprehensive analysis of the supply situation was not made on materials from the Kuibyshev region. It was also possible to establish the nature of the influence of problems with the supply of consumer goods on everyday life, public opinion, the psychological state of people, to trace the dynamics of their attitude to this problem. The significance of the findings will complement the materials on the problem of the transition of the USSR and Russia to a market economy, as well as on the social processes that took place at the end of the XX century

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):40-45
pages 40-45 views

«To end this nest»: Evangelical Lutheran community of Samara in the period of anti-religious campaign (1918–1930)

Gulina A.E.

Abstract

This study analyzes strategy of anti-religious campaign against Lutheran community of Samara in 1918–1930. Main source of study is official regulations, business documentation and press materials. The author singled out two stages in the existence of Evangelical Lutheran Community of Samara community in the period of anti-religious campaign. First stage: Soviet officials suppressed religious organizations that were perceived as threat for the new ideology. Lutheran Community of Samara city lost its property and the right to carry out educational activities, and also became obliged to maintain a regular document flow accountable to the provincial executive committee. Second stage: The situation changed radically, when the strategy against religious organizations began to tighten in the conditions of industrialization and collectivization: in addition to propaganda, physical persecution of Lutherans appeared. In addition, the author of the article examined in detail the process of closing the Samara Lutheran church, which clearly demonstrated the desire of local authorities, on the one hand, to implement the instructions of the central government in a preventive manner, and on the other hand, to justify their own actions. The article proves that in the minutes of the meeting of the Presidium of the Samara City Council, the activists of the German section were replaced by religious Lutherans

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):46-51
pages 46-51 views

Path to opposition: the motives of the student protest in Leningrad in the 1920-ies

Barinov D.A.

Abstract

Students have traditionally been a breeding ground for political protest. This tradition was formed back in the pre-revolutionary period, when students of universities and institutes were active participants in both the work of political parties of various persuasions and the all-university struggle for expanding the autonomy of higher education. In the first period after the revolution, the students continued to be one of the most active protest groups, which was most clearly manifested during the intra-party struggle of the 1920-ies. Continuing the theme of the student movement in the early USSR, which we touched upon in previous publications, in this article we turned to the problem of motivating opposition university students. To do this, we used materials from the Control Commissions of the CPSU (b) and personal party files, which make it possible to compensate for the small number of sources of personal origin related to the history of the Left Opposition. Despite the great growth of interest in the topic of the anti-Stalinist alternative in the CPSU(b), this valuable range of sources was not included in the existing studies. The article provides a grouping of the main motives and reasons for involvement in opposition work, as well as an assessment of how they coincided with the content of program documents prepared by the leaders of the movement. Among the main reasons that we have identified are: disagreements with the Central Committee on the peasant and Chinese issues, suppression of inner-party democracy, the search for thrills, the protection of the authority of the Bolshevik leaders (G.E. Zinoviev, L.D. Trotsky), etc. We will also describe the path of involvement of students in the opposition struggle, and the role of informal and family ties in this process will be determined as well

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):52-61
pages 52-61 views

Педагогика

Individual educational trajectories of teaching a foreign language at a university

Evteev S.V., Ionova А.М.

Abstract

In today’s changing developing the personalized higher education which takes into account the characteristics and educational needs of the student is an increasingly relevant task. Its importance is reflected in the legislative acts and requirements of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation. This study discusses the implementation of the individual learning path in teaching a foreign language at the university. The purpose of the individual learning path is to improve the system of modern Russian higher education and expand the individual needs of students necessary for mastering the profession, for future professional activity and, accordingly, competitiveness in the labor market. In this study, the individual learning path is interpreted as a way of organizing educational activities which provides for the formation of an individual curriculum for the student in cooperation with the teacher as well as considers students’ current and necessary levels of training in the discipline (disciplines), their personal potential, and abilities to achieve the goals of the educational process and to complete the curriculum or its part. The implementation of the individual learning path involves identifying the features of structuring the learning process, identifying the advantages and problems in the implementation of the individual learning path, creating a resource base for its implementation, identifying of the specifics and creating pedagogical conditions for building of the individual learning path at a university to meet the needs of students, improve the quality of their education and career growth. During the transition from the traditional educational model to the individual learning path model, conditions should be created for its implementation, and participants in the educational process need to know its positive aspects and possible difficulties. An important element of the individual learning path model in teaching a foreign language is the interaction in the employer-student-university triad

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):62-69
pages 62-69 views

Procedural and target aspects of the formation of monitoring competence of the future teacher of vocational training

Gladkikh V.G.

Abstract

The need to study the monitoring competence of a teacher is due to the increasing demands of the labor market for the quality of professional training of graduates of educational organizations. Pedagogically monitoring is considered an effective means of managing the quality of educational results. The competence of future teachers necessary for its implementation is formed in the implementation of bachelor’s degree programs. The article presents the continuity of the general professional competencies of a teacher of vocational training necessary for monitoring. The formation of the monitoring competence of teachers in the process of mastering the academic disciplines of the bachelor’s degree is characterized. It included reproductive, research, constructive and productive stages, the implementation of which culminated in the development of monitoring products by students

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):70-76
pages 70-76 views

Preparation of a university teacher for solving innovative methodological problems in the system of advanced training

Rubtsova T.P.

Abstract

Current trends in higher education define new requirements for quality assurance. Improving the quality of education becomes the goal and result of the activities of higher educational institutions, a guarantor in providing demanded graduates in the labor market. At the same time, the teacher is personally responsible for the learning outcomes in the form of general and professional competencies. There is a transformation of the functions of the teacher, his tasks are changing, taking into account new innovative functions in the activity, and there is also a need for their readiness to manage professional training. The article considers an innovative methodological task: conducting intra-university monitoring of the quality of student education. When studying the readiness of a university teacher to solve innovative methodological problems, it is necessary to analyze the trends in the development of education, to identify the main directions. The analysis showed that there is a need for teachers who implement new innovative tasks that can be set for a teacher on the basis of intra-university monitoring.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):77-81
pages 77-81 views

Formation of digital competence of future teachers-psychologists

Dudina O.V.

Abstract

The relevance of the article is due to the changes taking place today in the world community. Today we are no longer talking about a post-industrial, but about a data-centric world in which data itself, its collection, storage and further application come out on top. Therefore, the presence of digital competence is a necessary element of human existence in the modern information space. This article analyzes the works of authors developing the problem of competence of educational workers in a digital society. The author considers the concept of digital consumption in the process of application in educational activities as one of the components of the digital competence of the future teacher-psychologist. The article highlights the results of diagnostics of the level of formation of digital consumption as a component of digital competence of the future teacher-psychologist at the ascertaining and control stages of the experiment conducted on the basis of the I.Ya. Yakovlev Chuvash State Pedagogical University. The study was conducted between October 2021 and May 2022. In the course of the study, the level of formation of digital consumption of students of the Faculty of Psychology and Pedagogy was checked. The methods of the Russian Center for Internet Technologies, the All-Russian Center for the Study of Public Opinion, and the National Agency for Financial Research were used in the process of diagnosing volunteer students. The ascertaining stage of the experiment on the formation of digital competence revealed that few students use digital technologies at a sufficient level in their activities. During the formative experiment to improve digital competence, students were taught the skills of using modern information technologies and using digital tools in their professional activities. At the control stage of the experiment on the formation of digital competence of the future teacher-psychologist, we found that the indicators of achieving digital consumption in the field of professional activity of a teacher-psychologist significantly increased after lectures and practical classes in the field of digital consumption. The article may be useful for further research in the field of digitalization of vocational education

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):82-87
pages 82-87 views

Языкознание

Axiological characteristics of the concept of cruelty in modern English-language humorous discourse

Bochkarev A.I.

Abstract

This article is devoted to the study of the features of the comic objectification of the concept of cruelty in terms of axiological linguistics. The concept of cruelty is considered as a value of modern English humorous discourse. The present article is based on the axiological approach to the study of humor that consists of assessing the reaction embracing viewers’ response to cruelty through comically significant cognitive markers related to identifying language and non-language means of actualizing the concept of cruelty. The corpus of the research comprises recordings and scripts of more than 70 episodes from stand-up comedies and more than 500 episodes of various situational comedies. Besides laughter during the manifestation of cruelty is also often accompanied by applauding from the audience. The main key cognitive markers of the value cruelty concept within the framework of humorous type of discourse are: lack of compassion and sympathy; causing physical or mental pain; manifestation of injustice or dishonesty. Lack of compassion and sympathy is usually expressed through: taking pleasure in the pain caused; unreasonable, intentional and regular causing of severe pain or suffering; misunderstanding (misidentification) of their own cruelty. Causing physical or mental pain is usually actualized through: physical impact on a person; infliction of mental suffering; murder. In modern humorous English discourse, unfair manifestation of cruelty relates mainly to concerns mostly physically weak people. In humorous discourse the value concept of cruelty is expressed both verbally (description of cruel actions; statement of positive emotions derived from cruelty; enumeration of committed or alleged acts; manifestation of cruelty; etc.) and non-verbally (demonstration of the intention to commit a cruel act or the result of this act, the performance of cruelty).

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):88-95
pages 88-95 views

Actualization of the «motion» concept within the English railway discourse

Kabanova E.V.

Abstract

The article deals with the study of aspects of the actualization of the motion concept within the English railway transport discourse. It reveals the notion of concept actualization, identifies lexical means of its actualization, presents lexicographic and contextual analysis. It proves the thesis about the multifaceted and multilayered organization of this macro-concept, covering all transport areas. The linguistic means objectifying the concept convey a wide range of meanings. The core of the concept is formed by the verbs of motion, reflecting the direct physical movement of a subject or object in space. The verbs contain a nuclear seme and some additional characteristics of movement. The verbs of movement mainly contain the seme of a vector, regular, controlled movement, movement with the application of certain efforts, movement focused on the hauling some objects. The specificity of the research material allows us to see the conceptual features of movement in a professional environment. The «motion» concept acquires additional features, based on the fact that movement becomes an aspect of commercial activity that requires the involvement of various kinds of resources, a socially significant factor for the whole society, ensuring both proper functioning of not only the transport, but also the economic industry. The «motion» concept can be represented as a macro concept that combines other basic concepts. Blurring, fuzziness of boundaries between concepts is manifested in diffuseness, that is, in the ability of some components of one concept to participate in the creation of another.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):96-101
pages 96-101 views

Analysis of Chinese double-subject constructions from the viewpoint of cognitive linguistics

Radus L.A., Bolshakova T.S.

Abstract

This article examines the structure of double subject construction, which has been identified by researchers as a separate type of simple sentences in Chinese. The relevance of the topic is determined by the unsolved problem of explaining the role and essence of two noun phrases at the beginning of a sentence (NP1 and NP2) and a growing interest in cognitive linguistics as a relatively new and promising scientific direction. Due to the peculiarities of the Chinese language arising from its typological characteristics, a more comprehensive approach than classical syntactic analysis or topical sentence partitioning becomes necessary. Based on the analysis of the Chinese writer Lu Xun’s works and the sentences in the natural speech of the native speakers, we hypothesize that the double subject construction is a referential structure, where NP1 is a reference point, and NP2 is the subject of the inner clause. A number of cognitive linguistics propositions and research findings by scholars such as Ronald Langacker, Robert Lawrence Trask, Tsao Fengfu (曹逢甫) and Wen Xu (文旭) are cited as evidence. Through diachronic analysis, the structure of the double-subject sentence is traced to a relationship of inalienable possession. It is also suggested that the relationship between NP1 and NP2 could be an identical signifier. The novelty of the findings is in the departure from traditional views of this syntactic structure according to which NP1 and NP2 belong to either the subject or the topical category.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):102-109
pages 102-109 views

Ways and means of creating a comic effect in English drama discourse

Kharkovskaya A.A., Vykhlyaeva К.А.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the nature of the author’s remark and its functional ability to create a comic effect. At the first stage, an attempt was made to determine the role of the author’s commentary in the text of the play. Within the framework of this question, we have highlighted the key characteristics of dramatic discourse, namely, fiction and stylization. Next, we focused on the phenomenon of paratext, presenting the positions of both domestic and foreign researchers regarding the role of paratext in a dramatic work, namely the need to take into account the features of paratext when performing discourse analysis. In addition, in the article we made an attempt to present a brief history of the origin of the term «paratext». Thus, the processes of interaction within the pair «text-paratext» substantiated the need to study the dramatic text precisely through the prism of this correlation. As sources of factual material, we selected plays («The Comedy About a Bank Robbery», «The Play that Goes Wrong»), the authors of which were a galaxy of British playwrights working in tandem: Henry Lewis, Jonathan Sayer and Henry Shields. In the course of the study, a selection of text fragments was formed, which made it possible to identify a number of authorial techniques for creating a comic effect, the mechanisms of which are repeatedly duplicated from play to play, which makes it possible to suggest the presence of a characteristic comic style inherent in this trio of playwrights. As a basic technique for creating a comic effect, the authors use the interaction of replicas of the characters of the play and remarks that contradict each other, thereby realizing the principle of inconsistency, which in turn becomes one of the basic principles of comedy. Thus, the final part of the study is devoted to the implementation of the principles of absurdity, inconsistency and deceived expectations through the interaction of the author’s remark and the dialogue part of the play.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):110-116
pages 110-116 views

Typology of communication: from traditional lines of differentiation to new correlations

Nazarova T.B.

Abstract

In the article, the traditional typology of communication with the generally acknowledged twelve lines of differentiation is expanded to include several additional correlations that allow all those interested in both communication theory and communication skills to arrive at an increasingly multidimensional view of human interaction with its intrinsic contextual and functional diversity. Authentic samples of material are used to demonstrate the difference between types and subtypes within an increasingly wide range of communicative events and at the same time to account for the need to add several new dichotomies as well as trichotomies that bring language researchers and language users closer to revealing and approximating the layered complexity of the communication process at large.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):117-126
pages 117-126 views

Paronymic attraction in the process of phraseological transformation in modern French

Chaplik V.A.

Abstract

The proposed article is devoted to the description and analysis of the main processes of transformation of phraseological units in modern French. A theoretical assessment of the components of expressive speech and language game is presented, based on examples of the actual manifestation of the reception of paronymic attraction in the language of French media and literary texts. Analysis of the phenomenon of paronymic attraction as one of the tools of the mechanism of language creativity through the prism of semantic and functional aspects determines the relevance and novelty of the study. The aim of the study is to consider the role of the paronymic mechanism of the language in the process of creating texts with additional expressiveness based on the units fixed in the language. An analysis of the main approaches of modern researchers is also given. The examples cited in the text of this article have been collected from various French political publications (Le Figaro, Le Canard enchaîné), Internet texts, as well as works by B. Vian and J. Prévert.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):136-142
pages 136-142 views

Developing communicative competence in a foreign language using creolized texts

Abdrakhmanova L.V., Тerpak M.A.

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of developing the job-related communicative competence in a foreign language. The objectives and tasks of developing communicative competence using creolized texts, which are found in scientific texts, are defined. The requirements for developing foreign language job-related communicative competence in the process of studying are defined as well. The authors give a review of different types of exercises which can be used within the process of classroom activities and self-guided work. The authors give a review of different types of stylistic devices used in oral and written speech, as well as the review of studying grammar and job-related vocabulary. It is concluded that the mastery of written speech occurs rather late in the educational process. At the final stages of training, the formation of skills and abilities of the semantic analysis of the text, its compression, targeted extraction of information, combination and construction of a written statement is also carried out.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):143-150
pages 143-150 views

Category of politeness in Indo-European languages: comparative aspect (based on English, German, Russian, and Urdu)

Bhatti N.V., Gorbacheva O.A., Kharitonova E.Y.

Abstract

The article discusses the functioning of the category of politeness in Russian, English, German, and Urdu. The relevance of the research topic is stipulated by the need to explore similarities and differences of Western and Eastern linguacultures in terms of forms of politeness and speech etiquette in the context of globalization and intercultural communication. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the fact that it represents an original attempt to compare the means of expressing the category of politeness with regard to European and Urdu content. The article studies grammatical, lexical, and orthographical means of expressing politeness which demonstrate a certain social hierarchy revealed in speech acts. Descriptive, structural, and comparative methods are used in the research. The objective of the study is to establish the major similarities and differences in the usage of the means of expressing politeness in the languages under analysis. The study examines the concepts of speech etiquette, сommunication postulates and social factors determining the choice of a particular verbal means of expressing politeness in a certain communication context as well as the means of expressing politeness as such. The results of the study show that lexical means of expressing politeness tend to be universal for all of the chosen languages and they are represented by lexical units added to the sentence specifically with the aim of making it sound more polite. Conversely, grammatical means of expressing politeness are peculiar to every language and are expressed mainly by the usage of a certain verb form or a modal verb. Orthographical means of expressing politeness are found to be characteristic of the analysed European languages only.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):151-160
pages 151-160 views

Realization of situational cognitive models in English educational discourse

Yakovleva E.V.

Abstract

The presented article is devoted to the study of the features of representation of situational models on the example of small-format English-language texts. The purpose of this article is to identify situational models and analyze the features of language means of their representation of situational models. During the study, the following methods were used: description, contextual analysis, content analysis, discourse analysis. The article examined situational models using the S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G model proposed by D. Hymes, in which such situation components as Act Sequence, Instrumentalities, Participants, Key were identified. In the process of representing the cognitive model of the situation, «Act Sequence» comes to the fore, which is explained by the author's desire to show the dynamics of the development of the event. In small format texts, with the help of linguistic means, components such as «Instrumentalities» and «Participants» are distinguished, which are of particular importance for creating an emotional background for the situation. During the analysis, the following participants in the episodes were identified: family, parents, kids, landlady. The study showed that the identified cognitive models of situations, represented in the English-language educational discourse, arouse great interest among students, which, in turn, arouses interest in the language means of their representation and, as a result, interest in the language and culture of English-speaking countries.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):161-167
pages 161-167 views

English proverbs as a reflection of social stereotypes

Alexeeva T.E.

Abstract

Social stereotypes are extremely generalized and simplified views about various subjects and social phenomena that have evolved in the course of society development. Proverbs are also generalized statements that have been formulated by people throughout the history. The aim of our research is to prove that the proverbs are actually the reflection of social stereotypes that have long been affecting social relations. Using the method of continuous sampling we have selected the English proverbs that contain the main categories of existing stereotypes: gender, age, ethnic and professional stereotypes. We have studied the most wide-spread stereotypes about men and women, elderly people, popular occupations as well as some stereotyped notions of the British about themselves and have chosen the proverbs illustrating these generalized beliefs. We have shown that the laconic, metaphoric and memorable form of proverbs facilitates their rooting in the people’s consciousness and passing them on practically unchanged from generation to generation. Statistical and comparative analysis made it possible to group the proverbs on the basis of stereotype categories and to find out their percentage ratio. The proverbs containing gender stereotypes appear to be most numerous with the prevailing number of sayings about women. Age stereotypes reflected in the proverbs are mostly related to elderly people. Professional stereotypes embrace a small number of occupations and those few are most often of negative character. Ethnic stereotypes encountered in the proverbs represent the British most favorably. The relevance of the paper lies in the fact that the study of stereotypes as reflected in the proverbs would contribute to making people give up stereotyped thinking in favour of acquiring their own attitudes and viewpoints.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):127-135
pages 127-135 views

Рецензии

«Back to Arkhangelsk!» Review of the book: Khatanzeyskaya E.V. Soviet city in the extreme everyday life: Arkhangelsk in the epoch of industrialization and the World War II, 1929–1945. Moscow: Politicheskaya entsiklopediya, 2021, 311 p. (Ser. «History of Stalinism»)

Kabytov P.S., Leontieva O.B.

Abstract

The reviewed monograph by Elizaveta Khatanzeyskaya is dedicated to the «extreme everyday life» and survival strategies of the population of Soviet Arkhangelsk in the period of industrialization and the Great Patriotic (the Second World) War. The book continues the semantic series of those scientific works that explore the phenomenon of Soviet city in its historical formation and development. The author sets the task to find out how the formation of a new model of society influenced the economic, social, and cultural development of the northern port city, how the social appearance and everyday life of the townspeople changed at historical turning points, and what strategies and social practices they used to solve the most pressing problems of their everyday existence. The classical approach to the study of urban society is combined in the study with approaches characteristic of historical anthropology. The study of survival strategies transmitted from one generation to another is important not only in scientific terms, but also for public self-awareness and historical reflection.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):168-172
pages 168-172 views

Cognitive and pragmatic aspects of food representation in media discourses. Review of a monograph: Shevchenko V., Tomascikova S. Representation of Food in Media Discourses: Cognitive and Pragmatic Aspects: monograph. Samara: Samara University Publishing House, 2021, 216 p. ISBN 978-5-7883-1588-1

Shevchenko E.S.

Abstract

The present article reviews the monograph «Representation of Food in Media Discourses: Cognitive and Pragmatic Aspects» by V. Shevchenko and S. Tomascikova, which is devoted to investigating the process of cognitive models’ realization referring to food representation in American, British and Russian media discourses. The undertaken comparative analysis has demonstrated that the journalists tend to foreground the specific constituents of the cognitive models in accordance with their pragmatic goals. The author comes to a conclusion that the published monograph is a significant investigation of the essential problem of cognitive models and it contains important theoretical and practical results which can be used by teaching staff, graduate and postgraduate students in their scientific and educational activities.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2022;28(3):173-175
pages 173-175 views

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