Vol 16, No 4 (2017)

Full Issue

AIRCRAFT AND SPACE ROCKET ENGINEERING
Application of open-source software for industrial problems of vehicle lift-off gas dynamics
Abdurashidov T.O., Osipov A.V., Korchagova V.N., Kraposhin M.V., Smirnova Y.V., Strizhak S.V.
Abstract

High-power shock, heat, mechanical and – especially – acoustic loads present a serious problem as their impact on the rocket and the launch pad can be too strong. Turbulent supersonic jets ejected from the vehicle nozzles are the main source of these loads. One way to reduce the intensity of acoustic loads is to supply a special system of water jets that interact with the supersonic gas jets near the rocket nozzles. Numerical simulation of this interaction is an important part of the design of such noise reduction systems. The proposed numerical model should enable simulation of various processes of different scale, such as gas/droplets interaction, nozzle jets in the near field, acoustic loads in the far field, chemical reactions and others. Therefore, such a model should be modular and hierarchically aligned. A flexible and extensible implementation of the numerical model can be possible with open-source codes. This paper concerns the problem of numerical simulation of compressible turbulent supersonic jets. The hybrid gas dynamics solver which was used in this investigation is one of the main modules of the general numerical model. Preliminary results of verification of this module are presented. Comparison of numerical and experimental results for various experimental cases, both Russian and foreign, is given.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):7-20
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Methodological and analytical support for the creation and maintenance of aerospace industry technological development strategic programs
Gaponenko O.V.
Abstract

The article presents basic methodological techniques of constructing the “objective tree” of the Federal target program of technological development of the aerospace industry, formation and analytical support of components of program activities, including research and development work and investment projects of reconstruction and technical re-equipment of the industry. The main quantitative target indicators of achievement of the program goals are presented in the article. The structure of the program sections combining technological R & D and investment projects for reconstruction and technical re-equipment of production units are specified. In the paper the author proposes a system of criteria for selection of R & D for industrial base technologies and industrial critical technologies and the principle of calculation of scoring (rating) the significance of a technology in general. The paper presents the main stages of formation of the R & D section at which applications for R & D from companies in the space industry are collected, the applications are selected in accordance with the specified system of criteria, the prospects of implementation and effectiveness of the developed technology are assessed. The same methodological approach is applicable not only during the initial formation of the program, but also for its analytical support and making adjustments.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):21-30
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Сonceptual design of small spacecraft with a high resolution P-VHF band bistatic SAR system
Goryachkin O.V., Maslov I.V., Zhengurov B.G.
Abstract

Spatial resolution is one of the most important characteristics of a radar image. Significant limitations in communication regulations should be taken into account concerning radar facilities in long-wave frequency ranges (P or VHF). These limitations do not allow high resolution of a radar facility. The article presents a possible conceptual design of a small spacecraft with a bistatic dual-frequency P-VHF radar facility. The system under consideration is characterized by the displacement of the transmitting station in the process of imaging and stationary position of the receiving station. The synchronization of the system is ensured by organizing a direct channel of signal propagation between the transmitter and receiver. The distinctive feature of the system is simultaneous radiation of direct impulses of the space-borne radio transmitting device in two bands. The influence of the atmosphere on the radar resolution is compensated as a result of joint processing at the ground receiving station. It is expected that total spatial resolution can be brought up to 2 meters due to the simultaneous operation in dual-frequency ranges. The results of a full-scale ground-based experiment simulating the work of the proposed radar complex are presented in the article.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):31-40
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The use of gas-dynamic flame stabilization in afterburner combustion chambers of aircraft gas turbine engines
Kolesnikov A.S., Pakhol'chenko A.A.
Abstract

It is impossible to abandon the use of the afterburner combustion chamber in designing advanced gas turbine engines. Well-known and well-established structural designs of afterburners were developed several decades ago and do not meet the requirements imposed upon advanced projects, some of which appeared only now. In this context, it became necessary to develop new structural concepts and ways of organizing the working process of afterburner combustion chambers. One of such methods is the rejection of aerodynamic stabilization of the flame by using bluff bodies (angled stabilizers) in favor of gas dynamic stabilization. Gas-dynamic flame stabilization can be effected by the injection of air streams into the gas flow. Its application will reduce the blocking of the flow part of the afterburner, which will be good for the non-afterburning regimes of the engine’s work; besides, the possibilities of controlling the workflow will be expanded. But the implementation of gas-dynamic stabilization requires a source of compressed air. Bleeding the air from behind the compressor seems to be the best way for this purpose. A proposed combustion chamber flame tube head, the relationship of the characteristics of the injected streams and the gas flow to ensure stable operation of the afterburner, the effect of air bleeding for the needs of the gas-dynamic stabilization of the flame on the workflow of the engine as a whole are discussed in the article.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):41-50
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Development of a new collector device for gas turbine engine afterburner
Teslya D.N., Mayatsky S.A., Grasko T.V.
Abstract

The paper presents an analysis of the peculiarities of operation of gas-turbine engines with an afterburner. The main shortcomings of the existing afterburners are described.  The structural design of afterburners is analyzed. It is shown that the existing afterburners do not provide efficient control of the working process throughout the operational range of heights and speeds of flight. Methods of calculating the parameters of the working process organization in the afterburners are specified. The necessity to control the place and the angle of supply of fuel upstream of the flame stabilizer is proved. New operating factors are proposed for the system of automatic control of the afterburner. The use of new structural designs of collector devices incorporated in the afterburner is justified. These devices allow efficient control of the organization of the working process in them throughout the operational range of heights and speeds of flight. The classification of afterburners is specified and the advantages of gas-turbine engines incorporating afterburners with adaptive fuel supply collector devices are justified. 

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):51-59
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND POWER ENGINEERING
Technological future of Russia: the challenge of the “third nature”
Gorbunov D.V., Nesterov A.Y.
Abstract

The article discusses the technological development of Russia in the light of the tasks set by the National Technological Initiative. The subject of discussion and analysis is the logic of the development of the innovation ecosystem of the Russian Federation, the problem of anticipating the world trends in technical and economic development and the global issue of the grounds for making state decisions in the spheres of science, economy and education. It is shown that solving the task of developing a technological innovation ecosystem requires involvement not only of managers and specialists in engineering development, but also philosophers, sociologists, historians. The purpose of the article is to show the transformation of the technical and economic balance of society, inevitable in the conditions of explosive technological growth, to isolate and analyze the basic stages of this transformation, their philosophical foundations and main features. The question of the development of a technological innovation ecosystem in terms of general philosophy is stated as a problem of constructing ontologies that entail significant technological, economic and social transformations. The trial solution of the problem is represented in the form of a scheme of eight stages of development – from the model “Funnel” to the model “Grail” – and is a deductive construction, open to verification and falsification procedures. Verification and approbation of the solution of the problem of the development of technical and economic balance formulated in the article requires the participation of a wide range of specialists in the socio-humanitarian, technical and natural-science fields. The current state of technology and economics on a global scale is characterized as a transition from “second nature” technologies to “third nature” technologies. A consistent model of management of the technical and economic balance, overcoming the current model described by the Stevens-Burley formula is demonstrated. The role and the problem of the person in the conditions of technologies of the second and third nature is emphasized, problems of determining the substance of educational activity concerning the generations that will live in a new technical and economic environment are formulated.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):60-71
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Flow conditioning downstream a pressure collector
Kalaev V.A., Khorobrov S.V.
Abstract

In this paper, incompressible turbulent flow downstream a symmetric pressure collector with fixed outlet pipe length is studied. The goal is to obtain smooth axial velocity profile at the outlet plane. Finite-volume RANS equations with a SST turbulence model are used to describe the motion of fluid. The solution is carried out with the ANSYS FLUENT solver. The transitional part in the T-junction pipe is redesigned to straighten the flow, series of conical confusers and plate grids are employed to reduce both the size of the recirculation area and the magnitude of rotational velocity. The final geometry is tested under asymmetric inlet boundary conditions and its efficiency is shown. CFD results are compared to literature data in terms of pressure drop.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):72-81
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Investigation of hydraulic and vibroacoustic characteristics of a prospective valve with an elastic tubular element used as the working body
Kryuchkov A.N., Romashov N.N., Ermilov M.A., Balyaba M.V.
Abstract

The article deals with the design of an advanced throttle valve with an elastic tubular element designed to reduce the vibration and noise of hydraulic systems upon which strict requirements for vibro-acoustic characteristics are imposed. The analysis of known similar devices is carried out and the design of the throttle valve is justified. A detailed analysis of the strained state of the elastic tubular element is performed and the relationship between the deformations of this element and the hydraulic parameters of the working medium in the flow part of the valve is shown. The experimental flow characteristics of the valve under study are analyzed. The analysis made it possible to identify the parts of the characteristics at which the flow rate remains constant when the pressure differential across the valve changes. This feature of the hydraulic characteristics of a valve with an elastic element is substantiated. Ways of further directions of the prospective valve research are shown.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):82-90
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Relation between flame chemiionization and variable-volume combustion chamber temperature and pressure
Shaikin A.P., Galiev I.R.
Abstract

The article presents the results of investigating the relation between flame chemiionization and the flame temperature and pressure in a variable- volume combustion chamber. Functional dependences of flame temperature and maximum pressure on the electron current caused by flame chemiionization, fundamental characteristics of flame propagation and combustion efficiency are presented. Comparison of the temperature calculated by the proposed method with experimental data shows that with the excess air factor of 0.8 to 1.15, the precision is more than 85%. Comparison of the maximum pressure obtained experimentally and calculated by the refined Vibe model, using the proposed formulas, showed good agreement. The results of the work can be used to predict and monitor maximum flame temperature and pressure in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine and other power plants using an ionization probe.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):91-100
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CONTROL, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
Simulation and experimental development of a temperature control system of a radiation calibration source based on a PID-regulyator
Volkov V.V.
Abstract

Improvement of methods of radiometric correction for multichannel spectral hardware and wide usage of LED-sources require the development of both mathematical and experimental methods of calibration of the obtained spectral data. To obtain true coefficients of spectral reflection it is necessary to use high-stable radiation sources, which makes it possible to improve measuring accuracy, to perform a transition from absolute to relative units of measure. Application of high-brightness LEDs for the purposes of radiometric calibration is limited by variations of their characteristics over time, degradation of structures and temperature drift of characteristics. To stabilize the spectral LED radiation maximum we need to resort to additional methods for the temperature control of radiation sources by controlling dissipation power on the crystal, taking into account high nonlinearity of the dissipation curve of the crystal depending on the passing current. The nonlinearity of the processes of the crystal heat release at the optimum operation point calls for the application of a high-precision mode of temperature control. A technique of “proportional integral-derivative” temperature control for light-emitting diodes of increased brightness with phosphor-coated crystals was developed and experimentally tested. The possibility of using temperature control of a highly stable source to stabilize spectral characteristics is shown. It allows using this technique to increase the accuracy of assessing the optical properties of the surface under investigation.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):101-107
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Clustering algorithm with projection for solving problems of optimal allocation of transport facilities
Esipov B.A., Moskvichev O.V., Skladnev N.S., Alyoshintsev A.O.
Abstract

The paper proposes a mathematical model and a new method for solving the problem of optimal location of logistic centers for a two-level railway transportation network based on the application of the mathematical apparatus of cluster analysis. Given the geo-information parameters of the supplier plants, as well as the railroad networks specified by the railroad stations, the task of the optimal choice of railway stations – container points (CP) – is set. The criterion is to minimize the total amount of traffic in ton-kilometers from the production plant to the CP. For this purpose, the model of dividing the object into clusters is used as an optimization mathematical model. The required clusters are subsets of production points with their own CP centers. Since cluster centers must necessarily be located at railway stations, the article suggests a new clustering algorithm “with projection”. The possibilities of such a clustering algorithm, called k-means pro, are explored. A method of optimizing the choice of location of container storage distribution centers as second-level centers for a two-level transportation network is described.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):108-117
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Service-oriented distributed software complex for evaluation and multi-criteria analysis of reliability and survivability of on-board equipment of small satellites: Russian and Belarusian segments
Zelentsov V.A., Potryasaev S.A., Sokolov B.V., Skobtsov V.Y., Korenyako S.A., Kim D.S., Vakulchyk E.N., Kulbak L.I., Nikolaenya E.D., Lapitskaya N.V., Saksonov R.V.
Abstract

The paper presents solutions to the problems of estimation, analysis and forecasting of indicators of reliability, survivability and efficiency of on-board equipment (BE) of small satellites (SS) in standard and specified conditions of operation. A distributed software complex for multi-criteria evaluation, analysis and prediction of the values of reliability and survivability indicators of SS BE was developed taking into account the factors of outer space, as well as control of their reconfiguration at different stages of the life cycle (SPIIRAS). The developed complex of methodologies and software tools for estimating the reliability of SS BE (UIIP) was integrated as a distributed segment into the SPIIRAS software complex. The developed software systems are based on using the applied control theory of structural dynamics of complex objects, as well as the developed methods of estimation, analysis and forecasting of indicators of reliability, survivability and efficiency of SS BE, and database mining approach.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):118-129
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Application of convolutional codes for the protection of FPGA against single failures caused by outer space radiation effects
Nikitin A.A., Zhigulevtsev Y.N.
Abstract

Increasing the resistance of a system consisting of several programmable logic integrated circuits (FPGA) to space radiation effects is discussed in the paper. Only upsets (non-catastrophic failures) peculiar to the radiation-resistant FPGAs of the Antifuse type are considered. An algorithm of convolutional coding is proposed as a solution. The coder in this case is improved due to the replacement of a shift register by a cyclically rewritable register. The Viterbi algorithm is used for decoding. The algorithm considered in the article allows correcting errors not only in a noisy channel but also errors in the coder and decoder resulting from heavy ions hitting. The results of covering tests of implementation of a mathematical model of the algorithm proved one hundred per cent probability of correcting single errors in all units. The data obtained in the physical implementation of the algorithm in FPGA confirms the estimated reliability.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):130-136
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Conducting functional control of field-programmable gate arrays
Ogurtsov A.A.
Abstract

Approaches to accomplishing functional control of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) are described. The first part of the article describes the existing equipment that allows conducting functional tests of FPGAs. A table comparing the main parameters of the equipment available in the market is given. The table contains the main parameters of the equipment that make it possible to simplify the process of conducting functional tests of FPGAs. The main advantages and disadvantages of using this equipment are shown on the basis of the analysis. In the second part of the article the author describes the main methods of conducting functional tests of FPGAs. When developing algorithms, the author divides all the internal structure of a FPGA into two functionally independent parts. The first part is the internal programmable logic, and the second part contains functional blocks built into a FPGA. The article gives examples of algorithms developed on the basis of the methods described and configuration firm-ware produced with the help of these algorithms. The developed algorithms carry out functional control of the internal logic, as well as of function blocks built into a FPGA. To develop algorithms for functional control of internal logic the author uses the method of iterative logic arrays. A method of creating built- in self-test structures is used for the control of function blocks built into a FPGA. In the final part the author draws conclusions and describes the directions of his further research.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(4):137-146
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