Vol 13, No 4 (2022)

Full Issue

ECONOMICS

Innovative development of domestic engineering in the context of international sanctions: regional aspect

Dubrovina N.A.

Abstract

The presented article considers the current economic situation, taking into account the restrictions of imported supplies of products, equipment and technologies. The need to develop domestic engineering in the field of high-tech equipment production, to create a powerful innovation and technological potential on the basis of enterprises producing modern machines and developing advanced technologies is justified. The trend in the development of mechanical engineering in one of the industrialized regions – the Samara region – was analyzed. It was revealed that the main supplier of machinery and equipment to the domestic market today is a domestic manufacturer, the production capacity of which in some sub-industries operates at the limit. In this regard, a significant increase in investments in the renewal of fixed assets is necessary. The increase in the production of innovative high-tech equipment is associated with significant investments and serious time costs, even if financing is carried out from the federal budget. The reason for the weak investment activity of enterprises is the low profitability of production and an unstable external environment. The priority should be the development and development of innovative equipment that meets the modern requirements of the innovative and technological development of industry.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):7-15
pages 7-15 views

Prospects for the development of medium- and high-tech economic activities of the Samara region from the perspective of industry cyclical dynamics

Khmeleva G.A., Semenychev V.K., Korobetskaya A.A.

Abstract

Regional innovative development is the most important condition for ensuring the sustainability and balance of the economy of a country which is widely discussed in the scientific literature. However, despite having been ignored, the cyclicality of industries is an additional factor that either needs to be addressed or used to drive innovation. The article is aimed at assessing the prospects for the innovative development of the Samara region based upon the data on the cyclicality of prospective economic activities. For this purpose, the authors reviewed the dynamics of industries, identified stages of cycles, trends, fulfilled the medium-term forecast. The methodology of scientific research was determined by the econophysical approach, and the toolkit is the author’s digital platform. The empirical material was formed by publicly available data from Rosstat on the growth rates of the physical volume of manufacturing industry. Special attention is paid to medium and high-tech economic activities. The scientific results consist in obtaining the data on the profile and dynamics of the sectoral cycles of the Samara region, which enabled to build trends in the sectors and determine further prospects for the development of medium- and high-tech economic activities in the region. The novelty of the study is the author’s methodology for estimating cycles, which allowed to obtain these results and expand both the practical application of the tool to assess cyclical dynamics and its application to the research task. New results on trend, cycle, seasonality were also obtained. The most promising mid-term medium and high-tech types of economic activity of the Samara region  have been identified.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):16-26
pages 16-26 views

Organisational life cycle models: innovative companies

Ilyenkova K.M.

Abstract

Against the backdrop of accelerating the processes of digitalization of the economy, regionalization and globalization, the development of the “knowledge economy” and the “intellectual economy”, the topic of the company’s life cycle is becoming more and more relevant and in demand. At the same time, there is a growing interest on the part of both researchers and practitioners in understanding certain aspects of the organization of processes within companies that have certain specifics, in particular, within innovative companies. The purpose of this study is to study the existing life cycle models, to conduct a comparative analysis of the life cycle models of innovative enterprises. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are defined and solved in the article: to analyse the main domestic and foreign databases, to identify existing models of the life cycle of a company of innovative companies, to describe the main characteristics of these models and to conduct a comparative analysis of the stages of existing models of the life cycle of innovative companies. This study is based on company life cycle models published in scientific journals. For this, domestic and foreign melon databases were analysed. In the process of conducting the study, methods of theoretical generalization, comparison, grouping, system analysis and synthesis were used. As a result of the study, five models of the life cycle of innovative companies were identified, their main characteristics were formulated, and a comparative analysis of these models was carried out.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):27-39
pages 27-39 views

Concept of the development of the innovative processes of a research and production enterprise

Korolev M.I., Khorev A.I., Lutchenkо V.G., Lukina O.O.

Abstract

In the current conditions of the development of the economy of the Russian Federation, enterprises with a stable release of new goods and services that fully satisfy the needs of society can be of particular innovative value. The article reflects the concept of development of innovative processes of research and production enterprises. The essence of the implementation of innovation in the enterprise is determined: innovation of the process, strategy, product. An innovative structure of a research and production enterprise is presented, which reflects the main elements: market, scientific organizations, training centers, investment and credit organizations, Rospatent (Federal Service for Intellectual Property). The functions of the management staff and divisions of the innovation infrastructure of an research and production enterprise are formulated. In the process of activity of a research and production enterprise, there are three main stages of market research and the choice of a promising direction for developing an idea. The role in the innovation process for each structural unit and the functions they perform are determined. The structure of the innovation process is described and grouped by stages. Also, a special place in the innovation process of a research and production enterprise is occupied by the marketing of innovations. The paper formulates and presents the main functions of innovation marketing. Ideas for creating an innovative product can be offered both by the internal and external environment of the organization. Therefore, it is very important not to limit the flow of ideas from both staff and consumers, the media, competitors and suppliers. A scheme for implementing the idea into an innovative product is presented.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):39-50
pages 39-50 views

Analysis of the dynamics of the Russian ICT sector and the effectiveness of digitalization of the economy

Lukonina V.O.

Abstract

Every day the importance of «digital economy» becomes more significant, one of the reasons for the high interest in the phenomenon is the perception of the digitalization process as part of the global process of technological revolution and, at the same time, the expectation of large-scale ensuing consequences. Previously, such historical changes led to a significant increase in the efficiency of economic and industrial activities in particular, which is a basic factor in improving the level of public welfare in global terms. Nevertheless, business has a dual attitude to digitalization, in addition to the source of additional benefits, it is perceived as a problem in terms of the destruction of existing sustainable business models of large businesses and the complete demoralization of smaller structures, in some cases [1]. Thus, «digital economy» is one of the key elements of the transition and the existence of Industry 4.0. There are no statistical data reflecting the share of Russian enterprises that have switched or at least use Industry 4.0 technologies in practice, at least open ones. But it can be assumed that with the conditional ranking of technologies into simpler and more complex, with an increase in the share of the use of the former, the share of the use of the latter will also increase. And, further, it is necessary to consider in more detail the current state of IT in the Russian economy on available indicators, which will make it possible to determine the level of development and the state of the technological base for the full transition of Russian industry to the base of «Industry 4.0».

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):51-56
pages 51-56 views

Problems of information support in the management of innovation activities of Russian knowledge-intensive and high-tech enterprises

Podbornova E.S., Podbornov A.E.

Abstract

The current conditions of general economic instability necessitate the activation of national R&D, which raises a number of issues related to innovation. One of such issues is the issue of improving the process of innovation management in the aspect of information and related problems. The need to improve the ID management process comes from the idea of increasing the production potential and scientific level of the enterprise, which determines the level and technological equipment with the means and capacities of information processing necessary for making managerial decisions. At the same time, it is important to increase the level of innovation activity of knowledge-intensive and high-tech enterprises, while applying modern management and information technologies, using hardware and software bases and current forms of information presentation. The article will consider the innovative activity of knowledge-intensive and high-tech enterprises in the form of the management process of complex systems with a large number of interrelated elements in the conditions of competition, risks and various factors of information diversity. Thus, one of the determining factors in the development of innovation activities of knowledge-intensive and high-tech enterprises today is the improvement of information and communication technologies for information support of ID management, which directly affect the innovation potential and innovative activity of such enterprises.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):57-63
pages 57-63 views

Actual issues of Russian energy sector development

Shekhov I.A., Shekhova N.V.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the consideration of the most pressing issues related to the development of the modern energy sector of Russia. Among them there are the technical obsolescence of energy production facilities, a huge amount of unused energy equipment, serious disruption of the innovation cycle in the energy industry, and inefficient management. The authors pay special attention to the difficulties associated with the ever-accelerating process of digitalization of economy in general and the energy industry in particular. The article also predicts the most probable possibilities for the emergence of environmental problems initiated by the development of renewable energy. The priority tasks for the development of the energy sector are determined. The list of the mentions tasks includes domestic power equipment competitiveness increasing; ensuring full utilization of energy capacities; restoration of the innovation process; improving the quality of strategic decisions; solving the problem of negative impacts of digitalisation.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):64-71
pages 64-71 views

Classes of task problems for determining the effectiveness of investment projects, taking into account the uncertainty of the external environment and multi-criteria

Yurlov F.F., Yashin S.N., Plekhanova A.F.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the classification of decision-making tasks when choosing investment projects in conditions when uncontrollable factors act in these tasks that affect the efficiency of the compared projects, and the projects themselves must be evaluated by a set of criteria. In modern scientific literature, the issues of assessing the effectiveness of investments are often considered in isolation from issues related to the methodology for making optimal decisions in the economy. This can lead to an incorrect choice of investment projects when they are selected for financing, especially when it comes to innovative or socially significant projects. The article attempts to analyze the problems of multi-criteria and uncertainty of decisions in relation to the evaluation of investment projects. In particular, the question of classification is raised. All tasks for assessing the comparative effectiveness of projects are divided into five classes. The classification is based on three features: the number of project efficiency criteria taken into account, the number of optimality principles used under uncertainty, and the number of multi-criteria optimization principles used. As criteria for the effectiveness of investment projects are considered: net present value, yield index, payback period, internal rate of return. As the principles of optimality under uncertainty, the following principles are considered: optimism, pessimism, guaranteed result, Savage and guaranteed losses. The principles of taking into account the problem of multi-criteria are: the principle of dominance, the Pareto principle, the principle of the formation of complex indicators, the principle of highlighting the main indicator with the transfer of the rest to the category of restrictions. The tasks of each class are illustrated with examples, quantitative calculations for these examples are carried out.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):72-81
pages 72-81 views

Modeling of the innovation process of industrial enterprises in modern conditions

Osipova-Barysheva E.N.

Abstract

Modern market conditions, burdened by the process of active restructuring of the economy under new circumstances related to geopolitical instability and the sanctions burden, change the concepts, principles and requirements for the quality of innovation management, as one of the main elements of the sustainable functioning of the enterprise and increasing its competitiveness, as innovation today is becoming the main aspect of maintaining competitive positions. The well-established models of organizational process management in Russian practice are characterized by conservatism and low efficiency. The innovative activity of most modern domestic enterprises, in comparison with the standards of developed countries, is characterized by low innovation activity, a large percentage of the use of traditional technologies and organizational and managerial methods, separation of production capabilities and ideas from dynamically changing market conditions. In fact, an increase in the efficiency of industrial enterprises in the field of innovation and an increase in its competitiveness, taking into account modern intensively changing and unstable conditions, should be achieved through a qualitative increase in the level of economic science and educational technologies, taking into account modern, including world standards of innovation management. In addition, it is necessary to concentrate on our own R&D, possibly based on high-tech developments of friendly countries, and increasing the level of innovation activity within the country by industry. The successful implementation of innovation activities at industrial enterprises ultimately depends on management and management's approach to management and innovation activities. It is important to understand the importance and necessity of updating production standards, adapting management methods to market conditions, and the superiority of the final product over competitors inside and outside the country. Thus, the modeling of the innovation process at industrial enterprises today has a promising strategic role.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):82-87
pages 82-87 views

MANAGEMENT

Problems of ensuring effective Russian Federation industrial enterprises innovative activities management

Vasyaycheva V.A.

Abstract

The transformational processes taking place in the Russian economy over the past few years necessitate the development of new ways and methods to ensure the effective management of innovative activities of industrial structures. Before starting to solve this problem, it is necessary to identify the key problems that require prompt elimination in order to create a basic platform for improving domestic innovation management. The purpose of the scientific article is to study the innovative activity of Russian and foreign industrial enterprises and identify problems that hinder innovative growth. In the process of achieving this goal, methods of statistical, portfolio, structural analysis and synthesis, generalization, analogy, and system analysis were used. Based on the results of the analysis carried out by the author, recommendations were formed to ensure effective management of the innovation activity of domestic industrial enterprises. Scientific conclusions and proposals are of high importance for the development of theoretical and methodological provisions of innovation management and acceleration of economic and innovative growth of the Russian economy. Thus, the scientific recommendations and conclusions formed in the work can serve as an information base for the management of industrial structures in determining the vector of strategic development and increasing competitiveness. A strategic guideline for further research is the development of author's recommendations for ensuring effective management of innovation activities and improving the methodological tools of innovation management using modern digital technologies.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):88-96
pages 88-96 views

Modern methods for solving the optimal control problem in economics

Matveeva Y.V., Chigwanda M.T.

Abstract

The modern formulation of the optimal control problem is given, following which a survey of the methods currently applied in solving the optimal control problem in economics is conducted, with a focus given to numerical methods. The most important problems in the application of numerical methods in solving the optimal control problem are given and explained. The article then lists and explains the most common computational methods of solving the optimal control problem that are being applied in today’s economic sphere, how far these methods go in terms of achieving their objectives and providing solutions, the difficulties in implementing these methods, and the associated limitations. The latest developments in software and programs that are beginning to be used by mainly economists in solving some of the most common optimal control problems are listed, and their advantages and limitations are explained. Lastly, a general analysis of some of the next-generation methods and the future of the optimal control problem in general is made.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):97-105
pages 97-105 views

HUMANE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Intellectual capital of the university in the conditions of transformation of the innovation market

Kovelskiy V.V., Tyukavkin N.M.

Abstract

Taking into account the current trends in the development of innovations related to the impact of total economic sanctions against Russia by the United States and Western countries, which represent a ban and significant restrictions on innovative activities, in particular in the education system, the formation and development of intellectual capital comes to the fore, becoming an active measure to counter Western sanctions. The research presents scientific directions for the research of intellectual capital, clarifications of its formulation. The article reveals the essence and content of intellectual capital, presents transformational processes associated with its development, taking into account modern transformational processes in the innovation market. It is shown that the role of intellectual capital has increased even more – it is an integral part of innovative products, based on the use of intellectual results: licenses, patents, copyrights. The study presents the prerequisites that cause the transformation of the structure and functions of intellectual capital, its elemental composition is given. It is proved that the structural and functional transformation of the higher education system is carried out within the framework of the «Priority 2030» program, which defines the goals and objectives of the development of the education system, presents the paradigm of the development of the intellectual capital of the university. The article reveals the directions of transformational processes in the structure of education and proposes a model of the ecosystem of intellectual capital.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):106-115
pages 106-115 views

MATHEMATICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ECONOMICS

Development of an economic and mathematical model of cost allocation for preventive measures for oil and gas industry of the Russian Federation

Rostova E.P., Zinovieva A.A.

Abstract

Oil and gas industry occupies a significant place in the economy of the Russian Federation – its share in GDP in 2021 was 17.4 %. The trouble-free operation of oil and gas industry enterprises allows the stable development of this industry in particular and the economy of the state as a whole. Mining is associated with many risks – general, inherent in any economic entity, and private, reflecting the specifics of the industry. Common risks include market, currency, natural, political and others. The risks inherent in the oil and gas sector are associated with the peculiarities of the production process, a high proportion of workers employed in production with harmful factors, accidents and injured workers, and harmful emissions. The object of the study is PJSC «Gazprom», the largest gas supplier in the Russian Federation. The article considers such risk indicators as the number of accidents, the number of victims of industrial accidents, the volume of wastewater discharge into surface water bodies. These indicators are analyzed for the period from 2011 to 2021. A decreasing trend of these risk indicators, accompanied by fluctuations, is revealed. The cost of risk reduction measures was also analyzed: the cost of industrial safety, the cost of labor protection, the cost of environmental protection for PJSC «Gazprom» for the period from 2011 to 2021. Costs, in contrast to the considered risk indicators, do not have a definite trend. A model of the relationship between production volume, risk indicators and risk reduction costs has been developed. On the basis of the developed model, the problem of minimizing the total costs under regulatory restrictions on risk indicators is formulated. Separate functions have been developed that reflect the relationship between the number of accidents and the cost of industrial safety, the number of victims of accidents and the cost of labor protection, wastewater discharge and environmental protection costs. The presented models can be used by specialists of PJSC «Gazprom» when developing a risk management strategy, as well as by risk managers of other oil and gas enterprises after adjusting the parameters of the models taking into account the specifics of an individual enterprise.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2022;13(4):116-126
pages 116-126 views

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies