Vol 12, No 1 (2021)

Full Issue

ECONOMICS
Research of the market of educational services when forming programs for strategic development of regional universities
Vybornova L.A., Morozova S.A., Butyrina Y.S., Mikheeva E.A.
Abstract

At a new stage in the development of the Russian higher education system, missions are being adjusted, strategies and programs for the development of universities are being developed in accordance with global trends in the development of higher education and the challenges facing the country and regions. A modern university plays an important role in ensuring the socio-economic development of the country and the region, participates in the implementation of national, federal and regional projects, strategic development programs. The basis of university development programs is the provision of training for the priority areas of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, sectors of the economy and the social sphere, the development and implementation of breakthrough scientific research and development, new creative and social and humanitarian projects, as well as their implementation in the economy and social sphere of high technologies. Important aspects of strategic planning of the university are the analysis of trends and challenges in the higher education system in Russia, as well as the study of the educational services market in the region. The paper analyzes the structure and dynamics of development of the national and regional (using the example of the Samara Region) higher educational systems in Russia, identifies general patterns and tendencies, identifies the directions of development of regional universities.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):7-18
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Processes of development of digitalization of economic systems of the Russian Federation
Zhityaeva O.I.
Abstract

The article reflects the issues of digitalization of the Russian economy at the present stage of its development. It presents an analysis of the Program «Digital economy of the Russian Federation», which is based on the goals, solving problems, performing sales activities of digitalization, timing, and key directions of the state policy of Russia in the formation of conditions for the functioning and development of the digital economy. The article shows that the circulation of information in digital form is the main factor of social production, improving the quality of life of the population, developing the competitiveness of state, ensuring national sovereignty and sustainable economic growth of state. The implementation of this Program requires high-quality interaction between the state, business and science, since its implementation requires the formation of at least a dozen leading national companies – high-tech industrial enterprises that develop «end-to-end» technologies and manage «digital platforms», which will carry out their activities on world markets and form a strategic ecosystem, research structures and leading industry enterprises that ensure the systematic development of the digital economy of Russia. The Program implementation indicators show that the effectiveness of innovation development in the industrial sector of digitalization determines the creation of future markets, allowing industrial enterprises to create the image of the future of the regions, to carry out complex innovative activities. The relevance of the implementation of the State Program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation», which includes the processes of innovative development of the region on the basis of NTI, is that digitalization and the creation of innovations, allows enterprises to gain leadership among similar manufacturers, producing products with a significant degree of knowledge intensity, forming new product and technology markets. Digital technologies and innovative development of the region on the basis of NTI is the creation of a network integration grouping of the industrial complex on the basis of an innovative ecosystem. A significant result of this study is the formation of a model of the innovation ecosystem of the region based on NTI. The model shows that the development of NTI startups is carried out with the help of the regional infrastructure of innovation support, the main element of which is the innovative regional clusters representing the regional ecosystem of innovation support. The main importance in the ecosystem is played by the network connections of participants in innovation activities and their organizational and technological capabilities (points of industrial technological growth and development). The paper reflects that the implementation of the Program for creating a digital society based on STI to create new markets and technologies is based on the development of innovative activity of the economic systems of the region. In the proposed model of the ecosystem of digitalization of the region, the author has developed an algorithm for evaluating the effectiveness of its activities.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):19-27
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Key innovative technologies in russian oil production
Manukyan M.M., Yashin S.N.
Abstract

The problem of innovation is a key one for most of the industrialized countries of the world. Scientific and technical products resulting from intellectual activity need to create a system of protection of industrial property rights, which is a mandatory attribute of developed countries. The efficiency of modern Russian national economy is based on the scientific and technical potential of the country, along with natural and labor resources. The transition of the economy to a new qualitative state increases the importance of innovation and the development of high-tech industries, which, ultimately, are the most important factor in overcoming the economic crisis and providing conditions for economic growth. The innovative development of the Russian oil and gas sector depends on the state of the world market. It is necessary to look for other sources directly related to the main issues of scientific and technological development, including: improving the efficiency of exploration; increase of efficiency of development of oil and gasoline in remote areas; improving the efficiency of exploration in the floodplains of the remaining oil reserves; the increase in the average and low production of dense and high-quality construction of wells to a depth of more than 4 km; increasing the productivity of reservoir wells with low permeability. Therefore, scientific foundations of the development of oil and gas complex and the law of the development of innovative technologies are very relevant and have important theoretical and practical significance. The relevance of the topic of the article is expressed in the fact that the world's largest oil and gas companies are constantly looking for ways to improve efficiency, including through the use of innovative methods of oil search, exploration and production. In this case, the competitiveness and long-term survival of an oil company depends on the effectiveness of its innovation activities. The article considers the main innovative technologies in oil production in Russia and their features.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):28-36
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Global Innovation Index (GII) 2020: Russia's place in the world of innovation
Podbornova E.S., Melnikov M.A., Berdnikov V.A.
Abstract

At this stage of development of the world economy, all countries, business and scientific organizations are engaged in the issue of quality monitoring of innovative development of society and the economy, inventing for this various indicators that could most comprehensively assess the level and quality of innovative development of an economic unit. Currently, the global innovation index is used to assess the level of the country's innovative development. The Global Innovation Index (GII) stimulates and supports innovation during this critical period. The Global Innovation Index is a global study and its accompanying ranking of countries in the world in terms of the level of innovation development. This article has reviewed the Global Innovation Index from 2015 to 2020 for the Russian Federation and the first 10 in the rating, based on the 2020 rating. We also analyzed the indicators that make up the main components of the global innovation index in Russia for 2020, and identified the strengths and weaknesses of 7 main components. The author proposes the main directions of development in terms of problem indicators of the global innovation index of the Russian Federation.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):37-42
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Ways to develop the innovation environment of the industrial sector
Ryazheva Y.I.
Abstract

The article considers the main directions of development of the innovative environment of the industrial sector in our country. In modern conditions of dynamically flowing processes of globalization, the level of competitiveness of enterprises and the degree of their economic security significantly depend on their ability to systematically create and implement innovations in production. Meanwhile, despite the powerful industrial, human and intellectual potential of our state, the problem of creating innovations and introducing them into production is extremely acute, if we evaluate it in comparison with the world's technological leaders, and catastrophic from the point of view of the prospects for the development of our state. Its solution lies in overcoming the barriers that exist on the path of innovative development of domestic industrial enterprises. Despite the considerable scientific reserve of scientists regarding the coverage of the problems of innovation in Russia, domestic science still does not fully address the issues related to the barriers that arise in the way of innovative development of industrial enterprises, preservation and expansion of their innovative potential in conditions of increasing turbulence and uncertainty of external environment.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):43-50
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Project approach to managing innovative activities in the industry
Solodova E.P., Lazarev V.N.
Abstract

The article examines the innovative activity parameters of industrial enterprises in the Russian Federation, studies the main development trends. The dynamics of the main indicators of industrial organizations’ subdivisions carrying out research and development are presented and the main types of applied innovations are identified. Also, the costs of technological innovations and the sources of their financing were analyzed within this study’s framework. The main reasons for the decline in industrial enterprises’ innovative activity are listed. In addition, the main trends influencing the development of industrial enterprises were presented. The directions of improving the innovative activities’ management system of industrial enterprises are grounded on the basis of the project approach use. The general characteristics and properties inherent in an «innovation» and a «project» are presented. Domestic enterprises’ awareness of project management prospects will contribute to their sustainable growth and innovation activity indicators improvement.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):51-57
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Methodological aspect of assessing the military-economic efficiency of the logistics potential of a coalition group of troops on the territory of a CSTO member state
Stulov S.V.
Abstract

The article considers the methodological aspect of assessing the military-economic efficiency of the logistics potential of a coalition group of troops on the territory of a CSTO member state. A system for assessing the quality of management of logistics support processes for the coalition group of troops (forces) has been developed. This assessment system corresponds to the methodological principles underlying its development (consistency, validity, objectivity, information content). At the conclusion of the authors of the article suggested methodological aspect is application of special methods of expert assessment to the construction of matrix profile highlight the level of the management hierarchy, functional areas and indicators of the level of quality control and to determine the level of quality of management of existing resources departments of logistics for coalition groups in the direction of timely and full provision of contingent troops in the territory of a state party to the CSTO.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):58-65
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Comparative analysis of change in budget income from the increased VAT rates
Tolmacheva E.A., Podbornova E.S.
Abstract

Indirect taxes play an important role in the Russian tax system, one of which is VAT. Value added tax is one of the most complex taxes in the Russian tax system. The article is devoted to the study of changes in budget income from the increased VAT rate. A comparative analysis of changes in budget income from an increased VAT rate is carried out. The list of basic and special indicators of changes in budget income from the increased VAT rate has been clarified. Particular attention is paid to the facts that have a significant impact on changes in budget income with an increased VAT rate. VAT is capable of ensuring the stability of the entire Russian system of public finance in the long term, not to mention the fact that stability is especially important in a crisis. Therefore, any steps to change the tax, especially in the direction of increasing, should be carefully calculated from all possible points of view, and not only from the side of additional income to the budget. In this regard, the objectives of this study are to determine the significance of factors affecting the quality of VAT administration, to identify the main constraints that reduce the efficiency of VAT collection in the OECD countries and Russia, and to develop recommendations for improving the quality of VAT administration in Russia.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):66-74
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STATE AND MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION
Application of project management method as an innovation in the state and municipal sector
Ivanenko L.V., Kiseleva O.N.
Abstract

Over the past twenty years, various strategic development concepts and programs, as well as federal targeted programs, have been implemented in the Russian Federation. In this regard, it should be noted that this experience of long-term planning has created significant opportunities for using the project management method in the state and municipal sector. The article presents the results of a small retrospective analysis of the emergence of the project management method. It is noted that in our country, the application of the project management method began in the 60-ies – first in construction and industry, and then in other sectors of the economy. The concept and essence of the project management method are considered. The project management process is defined as the solution of some tasks. Further, it should be noted that in Russia today, the application of an innovative method of project management in various fields and areas is developing, as well as the active implementation of various national projects. It is obvious that in the Russian Federation, the use of an innovative method of project management at the state level is directly related to the implementation of «national projects». This study is devoted to the application of the project management method as an innovation in public administration at the regional and municipal levels in the process of implementing public policy, as well as attempts to find solutions for the development of the project management method in the state and municipal sector. To this end, the article assesses the current state of implementation of the project management method and determines the prospects for its development in the state and municipal sector.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):75-83
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Evaluation of effectiveness of state management and physical fitness in the region (on the example of the Karaganda region)
Abdrasilov A.M.
Abstract

The article examines the level of physical fitness in the region. The relevance of the topic studied in the article is due to the strategic directions of development of physical culture, outlined in the President's Messages, as well as the changed conditions of functioning of sports facilities in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. The development of the level of physical culture and sports is one of the priority areas of the regional administration. Every year, the number of participants in the region's sports and recreation events is growing. A characteristic feature of the state policy of the Karaganda region in the field of sports and physical culture is traditionally the implementation of a balanced approach to the development of physical culture and sports. One of the main tasks of the development of physical culture and sports is aimed at implementing one of the priority directions of the state policy in the field of physical culture and sports education of the population through the development of mass sports, high-performance sports and improving infrastructure. Some indicators of the level of physical fitness of the population of the Karaganda region are analyzed. In the final part of the article, the main problems of development of physical fitness of the population in the region are identified and a number of recommendations aimed at improving the level of physical fitness are proposed. The practical significance of the research results is determined by the fact that the implementation of the proposed recommendations will contribute to improving the level of physical fitness of the population.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):84-90
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HUMANE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT
Concept of the middle class and its features in Russia
Zavodchikova T.B., Maznaya E.A.
Abstract

The presence in society of a formed middle class, which makes up the majority of the country's population, is a guarantee of stability and sustainable development of state. It is the middle class that represents active economic entities that effectively implement the main economic functions and participate in socio-economic relations. The presence and formation of a middle class should be a priority task for the state. In the article, the authors explore various approaches to the concept and criteria of the middle class. The income characteristics of the middle class are analyzed (average per capita, median, modal incomes, income distribution of the population, indicators of income differentiation). The features of the middle class in modern Russia are revealed, among which there is a significant heterogeneity of the middle class, determined by regional specifics, social characteristics and social status. The ambiguity of the definition of the middle class, the lack of its clear criteria, and as a result, its significant heterogeneity in Russia, complicates the analysis and assessment of the middle class in our country, and, as a result, reduces the effectiveness of measures taken aimed at the formation and development of the middle class. It is necessary to understand that the extraordinary dynamism of the development of modern society, the digitalization of all spheres of socio-economic relations, the consequences associated with the fourth industrial revolution will greatly affect the structure of society, the conditions and standard of living of the entire population.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):91-98
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Professional self-determination of youth in the context of socio-economic reality
Nechitaylo A.A., Deptsova T.Y., Gnutova A.A., Priadilnikova N.V., Nikitina A.S.
Abstract

The main factors influencing the professional self-determination of university entrants and students are analyzed, the dynamics of the integration processes of universities with the domestic labor market is traced. The authors of the article tried to assess the competence status of a university graduate, which affects its implementation in the labor market. The problem of revising the criteria for assessing the quality of educational services within the framework of «regulatory guillotine» is comprehended. The article analyzes the effectiveness

of creation and functioning of flagship universities, their potential in creating real competition for the capital's educational institutions due to the ability to provide regional labor markets with qualified scientific and professional personnel, in demand for solving the problem of developing a particular subject of the federation. The problems of conjugation of Federal state standards of higher education and professional standards, resulting from an insufficiently coordinated approach to the classification of areas of professional activity, are considered. The need to strengthen the connection between educational institutions and the real sector of the economy is emphasized. According to the authors, one of the aspects of solving this problem is the participation of employers both in the development of professional standards and in the preparation of educational programs, in order to maintain the composition of competencies in an up-to-date state that meets the real needs of employers.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):99-107
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MANAGEMENT
Innovative technologies in machinery
Dubrovina N.A.
Abstract

The pace of innovative development of the machine-building complex and its structural changes are largely determined by the processes of automation, digitalization, improvement of machinery and equipment. The presented article discusses innovative technologies in mechanical engineering. The main trends in the innovative development of industrial production are: development of high-tech foreign economic activity, formation of an innovative space, digitalization of economy, creation of a unified database of innovative developments, formation of a new scientific base working on solving urgent problems, creation of markets for innovative products. It is determined that at all stages of the product life cycle, digital technologies are included, such as virtual reality, additive manufacturing, the industrial Internet of things, and a virtual trading platform. The definition of innovative and technological development of the machine-building complex is given. Despite the fact that innovative technologies ensure efficiency, agility and cost-effectiveness of production, in Russia the digital transformation process is in its infancy and is a promising necessity for the development of all industrial production. The transition to digital production technologies is associated with the solution of a number of problems. Such as modernization of the material and technical base, training and advanced training of personnel, preparation of the legislative framework, standardization, certification of innovative digital production technologies, search for investment resources.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):108-115
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Methodological approaches to the formation of management innovation processes of industrial enterprises
Chebykina M.V., Shatalova T.N.
Abstract

The economic activity of an organization includes many aspects of innovative management, which largely determines the success of its functioning. Based on the accumulated research base and analysis of the activities and structure of enterprises, the authors propose several types of classification of enterprise functioning models. According to the criterion of the behavioral model, the authors divide organizations into organizations that act according to the conjunctural algorithm, focus on marketing principles and the so-called «organizations of technological breakthrough», describe the main properties of these models and the differences in the behavior of enterprises of different groups from each other. The formation of managerial innovation processes is associated not only with their behavioral model, but also with the degree of influence of external factors on the company's activities. According to this principle, organizations belong to either an open or closed model. Closed models, in turn, are divided into those that function on the basis of theoretical postulates of scientific management and focus on the aspect of internal social interaction. Open models include enterprises that organize their economic activities based on the results of analysis according to the concept of systems theory and enterprises that resemble public institutions in their form and activity.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):116-122
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Key factors influencing the management of innovation activity of industrial enterprises
Shatalova T.N., Chebykina M.V.
Abstract

Within the framework of analysis of innovative processes of an enterprise, the role of innovative activity as an indicator of effective management becomes obvious. The authors listed the main economic principles that affect innovation activity in general, briefly described them, then analyzed the dependence of innovation activity on various factors and proposed several ways to classify them. The possibility of changing the internal content and the transition of factors from one category to another was noted, and typical examples were given. In more detail, the key factors that have a major impact on the management of innovation activities, in particular the fourth industrial revolution, were considered. The authors showed the historical heritability of industrial revolutions from the first to the fourth (the introduction of the steam engine (the essence of the beginning of labor automation) develops into conveyor production, which with the next stage is transferred to the monitoring and full control of information systems with elements of artificial intelligence), demonstrated the development of features characteristic of sequential mechanization and automation. Based on the available results of the digital revolution and the existing promising developments, the authors conducted a SWOT analysis of the likely factors of innovation activity arising from the onset of Industry 4.0. In order to maintain high innovation activity, they justified the need to develop an action plan in case of the most likely threats.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):123-131
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MATHEMATICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ECONOMICS
Modeling of interaction between shareholders and control bodies
Davletova A.K., Rostova E.P.
Abstract

The article deals with the problem of organization of financial control procedures for the activities of a joint-stock company by the audit bodies. The development of effective verification mechanisms can significantly reduce the cost of conducting them and increase their effectiveness. One of the problems that arise in the study of such problems is the modeling of behavior of participants in the system of internal and external control. The solution of this problem is impossible without the use on a scientific basis of economic and mathematical models of financial control mechanisms, taking into account the economic relations of the subjects and the object of control, allowing to assess the costs of control and its effectiveness. The article examines the mechanism of interaction between shareholders and control bodies. Models describing this interaction have been developed, as well as the tasks of determining the vector of the planned task of inspections by control bodies have been formulated and solved. The parameters of the verification procedure are determined by the criterion of maximizing the economic effect of the center from conducting inspections by the control bodies. The model uses a multiplicative function of the economic effect of the center on the possession of information on each of the subjects of control. The members of the system are the audit commission, the board of directors and the audit organization. For each participant of the system, target functions are formulated, taking into account information about material remuneration and taking into account alternative income. The developed model is tested on numerical data on the cost of conducting inspections and on alternative income. The results of the calculations illustrate the behavior patterns of the system participants, in particular, the feasibility of paying the full cost of inspections by the center and the implementation of the inspection plan by the control bodies in the appropriate volume.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):132-143
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Mathematical model of transition of a production enterprise to a circular economy
Saraev L.A., Тalikina M.E.
Abstract

In the published article, a mathematical model of an enterprise is proposed, the production activity of which is described by two production functions. The main production function converts resources into the products of an enterprise, the additional production function turns resources into its waste, which are usually included in costs. Enterprises of a waste-free circular economy organize their own production so that the waste of an enterprise becomes new production factors and is completely converted into additional useful products. The process of transition in time of an enterprise of an ordinary economy to an enterprise of a waste-free circular economy is described using a special dimensionless transformation function, which varies from zero to one. Two variants of the peculiarities of changes in the economic indicators of an enterprise that arise during the transition to waste-free production are considered. In the first case, a one-factor manufacturing enterprise was investigated, which in its production activity uses only one resource, which integrates the volumes of factors of production consisting of fixed capital, production assets involved in the production of labor resources, used in the production of materials, applied technologies, of various kinds innovation. In the second case, a two-factor manufacturing enterprise has been investigated, which in its production activity uses two resources, the first of which is fixed capital and production assets, the second production factor includes labor resources involved in production. Regularities have been established for changes in the time of production, waste, profits and costs of an enterprise when introducing waste-free technologies for the case of one-factor production. A numerical analysis of the obtained economic and mathematical model shows that the maximum value of the enterprise's profit changes over time and corresponds to the level of the introduced circular technologies.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):144-156
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Investigation of the impact of the project office on the socio-economic development of the municipality
Trusova A.Y., Aksenov V.I.
Abstract

The complexity of the socio-economic situation at all levels requires a detailed study of the regional development strategy issues and monitoring the implementation of presidential and government decrees. Various approaches to management were considered, for example, the national projects development implementation issues. National projecting, as a new tool for implementing state concepts, is an effective management method. The set of the project office functions provides control over the implementation of national projects at the level of development of municipalities of the Russian Federation. Historically, the level of socio-economic development of the territory has been measured and is measured using the identification of long-term trends in the development of key socio-economic indicators. The article presents a methodology that allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of project management tools since based on the results of its assessment, you can make informed management decisions and judge the effectiveness of the work of local authorities. Therefore, the aim of the scientific article was to develop an effective methodology that allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of the project office functions implemented in the management of the socio-economic development of the municipality. As a result of the study, systemic relationships were revealed of the impact of the project office on the indicators of the socio-economic development of the municipality, which was presented in the work as an important aspect of the study, the significance of which is due to the priorities of sustainable, balanced, competitive, integrated development of the Russian regions. In connection with the socio-economic policy pursued by the state, which requires speedy acceleration of the socio-economic development of municipalities, the effectiveness of the result of the application of the project approach in the municipal authorities was studied in detail.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(1):157-172
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