Concept of the middle class and its features in Russia


The presence in society of a formed middle class, which makes up the majority of the country's population, is a guarantee of stability and sustainable development of state. It is the middle class that represents active economic entities that effectively implement the main economic functions and participate in socio-economic relations. The presence and formation of a middle class should be a priority task for the state. In the article, the authors explore various approaches to the concept and criteria of the middle class. The income characteristics of the middle class are analyzed (average per capita, median, modal incomes, income distribution of the population, indicators of income differentiation). The features of the middle class in modern Russia are revealed, among which there is a significant heterogeneity of the middle class, determined by regional specifics, social characteristics and social status. The ambiguity of the definition of the middle class, the lack of its clear criteria, and as a result, its significant heterogeneity in Russia, complicates the analysis and assessment of the middle class in our country, and, as a result, reduces the effectiveness of measures taken aimed at the formation and development of the middle class. It is necessary to understand that the extraordinary dynamism of the development of modern society, the digitalization of all spheres of socio-economic relations, the consequences associated with the fourth industrial revolution will greatly affect the structure of society, the conditions and standard of living of the entire population.

About the authors

Tamara B. Zavodchikova

Samara National Research University

Author for correspondence.
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1158-1803

Russian Federation, 34, Moskovskoye shosse, Samara, 443086, Russian Federation.

Candidate of Economic Sciences, associate professor, Department of General and Strategic Management

Ekaterina A. Maznaya

Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education

ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3262-282X

Russian Federation, 65\67, Maxim Gorky Street, Samara, 443099, Russian Federation.

Candidate of Economic Sciences, associate professor of the Department of Economics


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