Vol 16, No 3 (2017)

Full Issue

AIRCRAFT AND SPACE ROCKET ENGINEERING
Constructing 3D fan blade models in CAD-system on the basis of coordinate measuring techniques
Arkhipov A.N., Ravikovich Y.A., Fedorov I.M., Kholobtsev D.P.
Abstract

Methods of coordinate measurement are reviewed and a possibility of their usage for fan blade geometry characterization and construction of a 3D CAD model is evaluated with account for actual blade airfoil deviations. Different components of blade geometry deviation from nominal geometry are considered. A technique of constructing a 3D model in a CAD-system on the basis of coordinate measurement, considering real manufacturing deviations of an airfoil is presented. To allow deformation of the nominal model according to the measurement data, the nominal model of the airfoil was recreated with account for the location of the measured sections. The issue of adding the measured profile of the blade root, edges and the peripheral area of the airfoil to the model is discussed. The influence of deviations of the out-of-the-flow path profile on the mechanical characteristics is assessed. A model with maximum and minimum deviations possible was constructed. Expected displacements and natural frequencies of the model were compared to the nominal ones. Further direction of investigation to determine airfoil geometry parameters most efficient for robust optimization is presented.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):7-16
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Optimization of space vehicle trans-atmospheric motion by using the method of sequential linearization
Balakin V.L., Ishkov S.A., Khramov A.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with the task of optimizing a space vehicle’s trans-atmospheric motion in order to maximize its terminal velocity at prescribed finite values of the height and trajectory inclination angle. The angle of attack acts as control in a vehicle’s passive motion. To determine the optimal program of the control of angle of attack, the method of sequential linearization is used. Solving the problem of optimizing the vehicle’s trans-atmospheric motion is illustrated by passive climb of a sub-hypersonic vehicle MPV (the first stage of the aerospace system RASCAL designed in the USA). The results of simulating the vehicle motion with optimal control and various initial conditions of the vehicle’s motion and mass are discussed.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):17-26
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Modeling external thermal influence of infrared radiation sources during tests of rocket and space equipment in VK-600/300
Dobritsa D.B., Ushakova A.A., Shabarchin A.F., Yashchenko B.Y.
Abstract

The paper presents the solution of the problem of simulation of the effect of radiant heat fluxes from infrared sources (IRS) on the surface of spacecraft and their modules during complex tests in a vacuum chamber (VC) 600/300. We suggest using empirical dependences as a solution to the problem of promptly obtaining the results of calculating the density of thermal radiation fluxes on the elements of the surface of a space vehicle when performing complex tests. A brief description of the design features of the IRS module is presented, which is necessary for constructing a mathematical model of thermal radiation distribution. The layout of IRS modules accommodation in VC 600/300 is shown and the main energy characteristics calculated in the modeling of radiant heat fluxes are determined. The article shows the empirical dependences obtained for calculating the energy characteristics of the IRS modules on the electric power supplied to the radiating elements. The results of  calculating the distribution of the IR flux density using empirical relationships are shown in comparison with the results of calculations using a software package and with the experimental measurements obtained.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):27-38
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Influence of turbulence models on calculated values of aircraft aerodynamic properties
Elisov N.A., Ishkov S.A., Shakhov V.G.
Abstract

The paper considers one of the stages of atmospheric entry for aerospace craft. The aim is to investigate the influence of turbulence models on aircraft aerodynamics properties. To study the influence of a turbulence model on aircraft aerodynamic properties, the following models were chosen: k-ε Realizable, k-ω Shear Stress Transport and Transition Shear Stress Transport. The approach is to design a structured grid by means of ICEM CFD that allows solving a wide range of tasks, e.g. for supersonic flow. The paper investigates aircraft aerodynamic properties at an altitude of 11 km. The aerodynamics properties of aircraft were calculated for various turbulence models by means of a supercomputer “Sergey Korolyov”. Based on the results of the calculation, aircraft aerodynamic characteristics, the values of post-shock pressure and convergence for different turbulence models were estimated. To verify the design results the value of the post-shock pressure is compared with the pressure value obtained by engineering practice.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):39-46
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Peculiarities of using additional low-power energy sources in the power supply system of small spacecraft
Kargu D.L., Beznyakov A.M., Nemirov A.V., Radionov N.V., Chudnovsky Y.A.
Abstract

We propose a method of selecting the orbit for spin-stabilized spacecraft in order to obtain maximum electric energy on board due to the spacecraft motion in the earth magnetic field. The article describes the peculiarities of using additional low-power energy sources for power supply systems of small space vehicles. A method is proposed for taking into account the complex dependence of the position of the resultant magnetic induction vector on the spatial attitude of the spacecraft for converting the energy of the earth magnetic field into electric power.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):47-54
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Estimation of functional efficiency of the air transport service system at a regional airport terminal
Koltsov I.V., Romanenko V.A.
Abstract

The paper presents a transport service system located at the air terminal of a regional airport and designed to perform working operations related to the check-in of departing passengers and baggage handling. A complex of indicators of the system’s functional efficiency is proposed. It consists of quantitative characteristics of performance, reliability and quality of service. These parameters can be determined by the widely used methods of mathematic modeling, primarily, simulation modeling. The results of evaluating the efficiency of a model system similar to the modern systems of Russian regional airports are presented.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):55-64
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Set-theory model of the aircraft hydraulic system working fluid state
Koptev A.N., Gareyev A.M., Popelnyuk I.A.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the development of a set-theory model of the aircraft hydraulic system working fluid state using the mathematical apparatus of the set theory. The relevance of the work is connected with the necessity of developing a universal mathematical model of the hydraulic fluid state. The model is to form the basis of an intelligent system to control the working fluid state on board the aircraft. As a result, a general expression is obtained that allows describing the working fluid state at an arbitrary moment of time using its basic parameters, namely contamination, viscosity, density, chemical and temperature properties. A hierarchy of parameters of the working fluid state taking into account the diagnostic value of the information obtained during their measurement is constructed. The main classes of states are distinguished among all possible states of the working fluid. These are the ideal state, the normal state, pre-failure and failure. Each of them is described by a set of configurations of all possible values of the main parameters. А technique for optimizing the time of the inspection of technical condition based on the calculation of the change in the entropy of the working fluid is proposed. 

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):65-75
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Peculiarities of using hot-air balloons in tests of parachute systems
Kurinny S.M., Krivorotov M.M., Baranichenko E.A.
Abstract

Some peculiarities of using hot-air balloons in testing parachute systems are described in the paper. The main aim is to reduce expenses while testing parachute systems. Similarity criteria such as Froude number and Newton’s number were used to assess the reliability of the results of testing scaled-down models of parachute systems. The issue of expeditious changes in the structure of parachute systems and assessment of their effectiveness in tests is discussed. A conclusion is drawn about the advantages of using hot-air balloons for testing models of parachute systems and prospects of their further use.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):76-80
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Selecting a squeeze film damper model for solving problems of gas turbine engine rotor dynamics
Leontiev M.K., Kutakov M.N.
Abstract

Various standard mathematical squeeze film damper (SFD) models that can be applied for solving rotor dynamics problems of gas turbine engines (GTE) are presently available. The accuracy of simulation is ultimately affected by the choice of a certain SFD formulation that depends on many factors – geometry parameters, oil supply method, oil inlet pressure, operating conditions etc. The present contribution suggests some recommendations for selecting a particular mathematical SFD model and compares the simulation results obtained with different SFD formulations. To this end a point rotor system is numerically analyzed with the aid of the DYNAMICS R4 (www.alfatran.com) software. 

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):81-93
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Mathematical model and optimization of helicopter vertical takeoff considering operational conditions and aerodynamic damping
Onushkin Y.P., Sizov D.A., Poluyakhtov V.A., Ostrovoy A.V.
Abstract

A mathematical model of helicopter vertical takeoff was created. The model takes into account operating conditions and individual performance capabilities of a given helicopter. An optimization technique based on a genetic algorithm was introduced. The influence of mass, initial height and outside air temperature on the parameters of the optimal control law in case of vertical takeoff of Mi-8MT helicopter was estimated.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):94-103
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Construction of an upper stage flight pattern for placing a group of spacecraft into an orbit plane with the required angular distance between the satellites
Poplevin A.S., Panov N.A.
Abstract

The article deals with issues of constructing the flight pattern of an upper stage and its ballistic justification subject to minimization of the mission time taking into account the upper stage’s performance in the case of placing a group of spacecraft into the orbit plane with provision of a uniform angular distance between the satellites, and generating a motion control program to implement the chosen flight pattern. The solution of the problem is divided into two steps: the choice of a flight pattern with its project-ballistic analysis and generation of a centre-of-mass motion control program providing the required deployment of satellites. To solve the problem of the project-ballistic analysis of the flight pattern the author developed a mathematical apparatus allowing determination of a flight pattern that matches the specified criteria of time and fuel consumption by end formulae using the linear programming technique.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):104-113
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Locally optimal control of space tug motion between the libration points of the Earth-Moon system
Starinova O.L., Fain M.K.
Abstract

The article deals with the locally optimal control of space tug transfers between the libration points of the Earth-Moon system using low-thrust engines. The control program was obtained using the Fedorenko method to find derivatives and a variable-step gradient method to optimize control laws. All flights were considered within the restricted three-body problem. The mathematical model of flight was described in a barycentric coordinate system. The total flight time was assumed as the optimization criterion. The disturbances from the Earth, the Moon and the Sun were taken into account. The influence of shadow zones created by the Earth and the Moon was examined. Laws of control, trajectories and values of the total flight time were obtained as a result of optimization.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):114-124
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Iteration procedure of choosing a low-thrust rendezvous transfer control program in problems of space debris disposal in the geostationary orbit
Philippov G.A.
Abstract

The problem of controlling rendezvous between a “debris collector” spacecraft and fragments of space debris in the geostationary orbit is studied. Relative motion in the orbital cylindrical coordinate system is considered. A linearized model of motion is used; relative motion is divided into periodic and secular components on the basis of the model. Motion control is carried out by thrust acceleration reversal. The problem of control is divided into two parts. The first iteration implies analytical determination of a control program using a linearized motion model. The program is based on the control of secular components of relative motion. The second iteration consists in refining the control program obtained earlier using the original math model and the analytical solution obtained in the first iteration. Numerical simulation of motion is carried out. We established that it is rational to start the rendezvous transfer at the moment when the “debris collector” spacecraft is positioned below and to the right or above and to the left relative to the space debris fragment.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):125-137
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Development of small satellite structure taking into account the use of laser measuring systems
Shaposhnikov S.N.
Abstract

The article presents some information on the development of the design concept of a small satellite for Earth remote sensing. The AIST-2D engineering test small satellite is a co-development of the Progress Space-Rocket Centre and the Samara National Research University. The article sets forth the requirements to design of the small satellite that was developed taking into account the use of a laser-gaging system. The author describes the process of elaborating 3D design documents with the use of the top-down design method. The results of technical feasibility assessment are given, as well as the recommendations on configuring a small satellite to meet the above-mentioned requirements. The technology of measuring the actual positions of seats for hardware of high positional location accuracy is considered. The technology is based on the use of a laser tracker. The author obtained positive results of dummy tests that proved the correctness of the solutions chosen. The recommendations on further application of this technology are defined.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):138-144
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND POWER ENGINEERING
Computational and experimental research of exhaust gas treatment systems
Galevko V.V., Rakhmatov R.I.
Abstract

The authors describe a calculation-experimental technique for the development and design of truck-based exhaust gas treatment systems on the basis of finite element modeling. The results of calculation and experimental research are presented, including distribution of sound pressure in the internal volume of the developed design of exhaust system. The design of a catalytic silencer with the best vibroacoustic characteristics was selected and tested on a truck.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):145-154
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Advanced methods for assessing sealing ability of valve seals
Kondrashov Y.I., Sergeev R.N.
Abstract

The paper deals with the processes that arise when sealing valve contact surfaces. A mathematical model of elastic contact is proposed that allows solving the problem of deformation of contacting surfaces with allowance for their rigidity by solving a system of linear equations and using the finite element method. To solve the problems of diagnosing and investigating the tightness of contact surfaces, a control and measuring system based on digital speckle interferometry with a continuous laser is proposed.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):155-164
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Experimental study of a method of reducing the drag of a circular cylinder by installing a flat plate
Frolov V.A., Kozlova A.S.
Abstract

The article describes experimental investigation of a method of reducing the drag of a circular cylinder. We consider installation of a flat plate parallel to the flow before the cylinder. The results for the cylinder drag coefficient depending on various locations of the flat plate relative to the cylinder are presented. The following geometric characteristics are studied: the reference chord of the plate and the angle of the plate’s position with respect to the cylinder. It was found that the drag coefficient depends on the location of the plate relative to the cylinder. The article presents experimental results that were obtained in the wind tunnel of Samara University. The locations of the plate relative to the cylinder that provide the lowest value of the drag coefficient are identified. 

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):165-172
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CONTROL, COMPUTER SCIENCE AND INFORMATION SCIENCE
Application of decision support technology at various stages of the life cycle of space facilities in assembly with the information system of technical condition and reliability
Avtamonov P.N., Bakhmut A.D., Krylov A.V., Okhtilev M.Y., Okhtilev P.A., Sokolov B.V.
Abstract

The paper presents an approach to assessing structural states of space vehicles (complex organizational and technical objects) with support of taking decisions on their life cycle control. The analysis of the subject area showed the need to apply the new intellectual information technology presented in the article to the design of both the information system of a complex organizational and technical object, and the related systems for monitoring structural states and decision support as part of such an information system. We consider a version of a generalized computational model as a theoretical basis of this technology. The version discussed is a unified knowledge representation model that integrates a number of methods and approaches of the Artificial Intelligence theory and makes it possible to construct imitation-analytical polymodel complexes for monitoring states and controlling complex organizational and technical objects. The article shows that applying this technology allows comprehensive assessment of the technical state and reliability of the monitored object. The article also provides a brief overview of the software complex that solves the problems of estimating the structural states of space vehicles. The software complex is implemented on the basis of the examined intellectual information technology.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):173-184
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Protocols of stitching image strips formed by optoelectronic converters and their application
Kuznetsov P.K., Martem’ianov B.V., Miatov G.N., Yudakov A.A.
Abstract

The paper deals with processing video data obtained by composite (multimatrix) optoelectronic converters used in purpose designed equipment of observation space vehicles. It is shown that the video data obtained in the areas of intersection of fields of view of two adjacent photosensitive matrices can be beneficially used to solve a number of tasks: assessing the quality of performance of spacecraft motion control system on the survey routes, specifying the parameters of image blur, assessing the deviations of the geometrical arrangement of photosensitive matrixes from the design parameters and some other tasks.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):185-196
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Metrological analysis of a device rof nondestructive control of flight vehicle fuel tank current conductive coatings
Samsonov A.S., Blinov D.I., Skvortsov B.V., Zhivonosnovskaya D.M.
Abstract

The article discusses and theoretically justifies a method and a device for non-destructive testing of conductive coatings of aircraft fuel tanks. The authors present a patented solution and display the essence of the measuring procedure that consists in scanning the surface by an electrode forming a capacitor with the test material. A mathematical model describes the process of detecting a closed defect with different sizes of the scanning electrode. The article contains metrological analysis of the developed device, considering the basic and additional errors that affect the results of the measurement procedure. By basic errors, in this paper, we mean the error in determining the coordinate of the defect and the systematic additive (methodological) error; by additional errors we understand thermal and dynamic ones. Among all types of errors that arise in the process of flaw detection, the most significant ones are identified. Also, methods for compensating various types of errors by constructive or algorithmic methods are proposed. Numerical analysis of the errors considered in the article is carried out. The analysis proves the possibility of defect localization with an error ≤ 6.5 mm. A summary table of the main types of errors is compiled.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2017;16(3):197-208
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