# Vol 22, No 4 (2019)

**Year:**2019**Articles:**25**URL:**https://journals.ssau.ru/pwp/issue/view/410

## Articles

### Methods for solving incorrect tasks of electrodynamic analysis of radiating structures based on chiral metamaterials

#### Abstract

This article is devoted to the development of correct methods for electrodynamic analysis of single and multi-element radiating structures with substrates of chiral metamaterials. An approach to the electrodynamic analysis of such antennas based on the method of singular integral representations of the field and the method of surface impedances is proposed. A system of singular integral equations with respect to unknown distribution functions of current density over emitters is obtained. The proposed method was tested using the example of solving a test problem using the Feko software package. The prospects of using such ICs in MIMO systems are shown, which make it possible to increase their efficiency, in particular, to increase throughput. The effect of azimuthal scattering of electromagnetic waves is also presented, which can be used to create low-profile antennas of subscriber radio communication stations installed on mobile objects.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):7-19

### Wave structures in complex continuous media including atmosphere, hydrosphere and space plasma

#### Abstract

Тhe results of theoretical and numerical study of the structure and dynamics of 2D and 3D solitons and nonlinear waves described by the generalized equations of the Belashov – Karpman system (such as the Kadomtsev – Petviashvili and the 3-DNLS classes of equations), and also the vortical systems described by Euler-type equations are presented. The generalizations (relevant to various complex physical media) accounting for high-order dispersion corrections, and dissipation are considered. To study the stability of multidimensional solutions of the equations the method of investigation of the Hamiltonian’s boundness with its deformation conserving momentum of a system by solving the corresponding variation problem is used. As a result, the conditions of existence of the 2D and 3D soliton solutions in the Belashov – Karpman system in dependence on values of the equations’ coefficients, i.e. on the parameters of both the medium and the propagating wave have been obtained. Stability of the 2D- and 3D-vortical systems is studied on the basis of the stability criterions obtained earlier. The evolution and interaction of multidimensional solitons and vortical systems is studied numerically. Special attention is paid to the applications of the theory in different fields of modern physics including plasma physics (FMS, IA and Alfvén waves in space plasma), hydrodynamics (surface waves on «shallow» fluid and the oceanic vortices), and physics of atmosphere (internal gravity waves at heights of the ionosphere F layer, vortices of the cyclonic type and tornados in the Earth atmosphere etc.).

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):20-24

### Program of electromagnetic modeling antenna arrays HF-range

#### Abstract

The program of electromagnetic modeling antenna arrays HF-range has been developed to eliminate the shortcomings and limitations of the existing programs of analysis and synthesis of wire antennas. The technique assuming the numerical solution of systems singular integral equations of Pocklington type in approximation of a projection method Galerkin forms a basis of the software. Decomposition of unknown current density functions in the basis of piecewise linear functions is performed. The generated software solution made it possible to implement computational procedures in the near-real-time mode without imposing restrictions on the size and number of elements in the analyzed antenna array when parallelizing computational processes with numerical integration on the CPU. To demonstrate the functionality of the program, examples of modeling a wire Z-shaped antenna array are given.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):25-32

### Characteristics of two-way conical logospiral antennas with grid and chiral reflectors

#### Abstract

This paper presents the results of mathematical modeling of a two-way conical logospiral antenna with a reflector made of spiral-based metamaterial. A comparative analysis of the results of mathematical modeling of this antenna with the classical design of a conical logospiral antenna is presented.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):33-43

### Methodology of improvement of directional properties of aperture reception elements of direction-finding array

#### Abstract

In this paper the single biconical ultra-wideband reception device which is a part of directional-finding array is considered. Directional characteristics and matching of this device well-known and this characteristics can be improvement in several ways, for example, by means of the dielectric lens. However, use of classical lens essentially increments the terminating dimension of a device and all system. In this paper methods of transformation of the shape of a radiation pattern by means of the different dielectric insert in interior volume of receptions device are described. Directional characteristics and matching of a reception element will be defined by shape and dielectric properties of an insert.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):44-49

### Mathematical model filtering canonical parameters of satellite-repeater in orbital motion

#### Abstract

For the effective solution of the problem estimation of canonical parameters the satellite-repeater at orbital motion the substantial statement within which the generalized scheme of model filtration of coordinates and a vector of speed movement the satellite-repeater is given is formulated. The system of restrictions and assumptions is introduced. When the state vector is represented by a continuous vector Markov process, the generalized equations of state and observations in kinematic variables are determined. Using the methods of numerical differentiation, schemes for solving ordinary differential equations, optimization, linearization of the original filtration problem in determining the rules for calculating the evolution and measurement matrices is performed. The efficiency of the generated algorithmic solutions is tested on specific examples.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):50-57

### The Bragg element base of the microwave and terahertz electronics

#### Abstract

A new approach to constructing the elemental base of electronics in the microwave and terahertz ranges associated with the development of functional elements of radio electronics based on Bragg structures have been proposed. The possibility of creating narrow-band rejection filters based on Bragg structures with a frequency-independent transmission coefficient close to unity outside the stop band has been demonstrated. The characteristics of small-sized matched loads for operation in the microwave and terahertz frequency ranges based on Bragg structures containing nanometer metal films have been described. The possibility of using microwave photonic crystals as a new types of electrodynamic systems for measuring the parameters of materials and structures by microwave methods has been considered. The coaxial photonic crystal was used for implementing the method for measuring the complex permittivity of dielectrics, based on the use of the transmission and reflection frequency dependences at the frequency of the defect mode in the band gap.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):58-60

### Current state and development prospects of design and technology of ceramic filters for on-board microwave equipment

#### Abstract

The article considers the main design and technology issues of ceramic filters for on-board receiving and transmitting microwave equipment on the example of the development of the branch of RFNC-ARIEP «RIMS named after Yu.E. Sedakov». The types of band-pass filters based on coaxial ceramic resonators created in recent years hear are presented. The features of their designs and technology in the manufacture on the basis of RIMS are considered, including if it is necessary to manufacture in a short time a limited number of coaxial ceramic resonators of band-pass filters of arbitrary shape and size. The results of the current developments of band-pass filters, planned for use in the advanced equipment are presented.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):61-67

### Investigation of the possibility of using a system of two acousto-optical crystals to determine the parameters of pulsed signals

#### Abstract

The work explores the possibility of using the acousto-optical effect to demodulate a sequence of radio pulses. Measuring setup circuits for determining sequence parameters are proposed. The methods for analyzing the diffraction pattern that relate the intensity distribution to the signal characteristics are described. Experimental and theoretical curves are constructed. Based on the data obtained, a conclusion is made regarding the requirements for the materials of crystals which is the main part of acousto-optic cells. The conditions for the appearance of uncertainty regions are described.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):68-73

### Experimental estimates of angular coordinates and location of radio sources by highly mobile detector direction finders

#### Abstract

Using the panoramic digital detector direction finder located onboard the pilotless aircraft of plane type of small range in the conditions of a radio measuring polygon experimental estimates of angular data and location of the sources of a radio emission functioning at fixed frequencies and in the mode of program reorganization of operating frequency are carried out. Angular data of objects decided by a phase method on use of procedures of fast Fourier transform, synchronous spectrum analysis of signals in receiving channels and elimination of ambiguity of measurements of attacks of phases by finding of indicators of their multiplicity. At a fixing of radiators the choice of a flight trajectory of the pilotless aircraft by criterion of a minimum of mean square errors of estimates of location was carried out; options of the movement of the carrier of the direction finder equipment on an arc with the maximum corner of a notch of a bearing are implemented and filched at a task of course corners in turning points of a route on the basis of a posteriori values of dispersion of coordinates of objects. The analysis of mean square measurement errors of angular data and fixing of simulators of the sources of a radio emission executed on the basis of standard signal generators, and radio stations in frequency range 30…3000 MHz is carried out.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):74-81

### Fractals in radar and radio physics: 40 years of research experience

#### Abstract

A review of the main scientific results on creation of new information technologies on the basis of textures, fractals, fractional operators and non-linear dynamic methods which were obtained by the author has been presented in this work. The researchers are conducted in the framework of scientific direction «Fractal radio physics and fractal radio electronics: designing of fractal radio systems» which is being developed by the author starting from 1979 and up to the present. It is shown that new dimensional and topological (not energy!) signs or invariants that are combined under the generalized concept of «Sampling topology» ~ «Fractal signature» were proposed for the first time and then applied. Texture and fractal-scaling (topological) methods for detecting superweak signals and fields in intense noise and interferences are proposed. A new type and a new method of modern radiolocation, namely, fractal-scaling or scale-invariant radiolocation was proposed, discovered, and developed. This entails fundamental changes in the structure of theoretical radiolocation, as well as in its mathematical apparatus. The fractal radiolocation postulates were developed: (1) intelligent signal/image processing based on the theory of fractional measures and scaling effects for calculating the field of fractal dimensions D, (2) the sample of the received signal in noise belongs to the class of stable non-Gaussian probability distributions of the D signal, and (3) the topology maximum with the minimal energy of the input random signal (i.e., the maximal «escape» from the energy of the received signal). These postulates open new possibilities for ensuring stable operation at a small signal/(noise + interference) ratio or an increase in the radar range. These studies are priorities in the world and serve as a basis for the further development and substantiation of the practical application of fractal-scaling and texture methods in modern radiophysics, radio-electronic systems, and nanotechnology, as well as in the creation of fundamentally new and more accurate fractal-texture (topological) methods for detecting and measuring the parameters of radio signals in the space–time radar channel for electromagnetic wave propagation with scattering.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):82-85

### Influence of quantization noise on informative parameters of the echo signal under the condition of a perturbed atmosphere

#### Abstract

A physical and mathematical model of the echo signal reflected from cloud-rain systems is presented and substantiated. Algorithms for obtaining unbiased, efficient and consistent estimates of the first and second initial moments of the echo signal from the rain are proposed. Schemes of estimation of physical parameters of raindrops on the basis of estimation of power of the reflected signal: induced dipole moment of a raindrop, attenuation at propagation of a signal along a spherical coordinate of range there and back and parameters of cloudy-rain system: intensity of a rain, water content of cloudy-rain system are offered. The connection of induced dipole moment of a raindrop with the estimation of dielectric permittivity and conductivity of raindrops is shown.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):86-90

### An approximate solution for modes of curved optical fiber

#### Abstract

The paper presents an approximate analytical solution in closed form for the mode of a weakly guiding circular optical fiber with an arbitrary profile of the refractive index. The solution is valid for guided linearly polarized modes of arbitrary radial and azimuthal orders. The proposed solution is based on the joint application of the Gaussian approximation method and the stratification method, as well as the replacement of an optical fiber with a bending radius significantly exceeding the radius of the fiber, some direct optical fiber with an equivalent profile of the refractive index. The results of calculations for a typical refractive index profile of a multimode optical fiber with a core and cladding diameters of 50/125 are presented. It is shown that for the considered examples, the degree of influence of the bending radius on the propagation constant of the mode of a curved fiber waveguide increases with increasing mode order. And, in the range of changes in the bend radius of the fiber, in which the conditions for applying the proposed approximate analytical solution are fulfilled, the mode propagation constant due to the bending of the fiber changes insignificantly and we can assume that this change does not depend on the value of the bend radius.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):99-105

### A mathematical model for scanning an arbitrary resonant contour by continuous wave three-frequency laser radiation

#### Abstract

A mathematical model for scanning an arbitrary optical fiber resonance structure with an ultra-narrow spectral shape by a continuous wave three-frequency asymmetric by amplitude signal is proposed. It is shown that the three-frequency asymmetric scanning method has significant advantages over the methods of symmetric poly-harmonic scanning with suppressed carrier. In addition, the proposed method allowing study the spectral characteristics of ultra-narrow resonant circuits, since the method involves measuring beats at the difference frequencies of the initial three-frequency radiation, which can be of the order of several tens of megahertz.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):106-113

### Bragg microwave structure in a coaxial waveguide as a sensor for monitoring the dielectric parameters of liquid media

#### Abstract

The article considers the class of periodic systems in waveguide devices of the microwave frequency (microwave) range of electromagnetic waves, which show the effects of Bragg resonance reflection in this frequency range. The priority areas of using these structures in the field of measuring the electrophysical parameters of materials and substances are shown. The general principles of the operation of measuring instruments for controlling the dielectric parameters of liquid media based on sensitive elements in the form of Bragg microwave structures implemented in a coaxial waveguide are formulated.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):114-120

### The use of non-dispersive soliton-like fiber optic vortices to increase the efficiency of RoF systems

#### Abstract

In this article, the propagation of soliton-like vortex beams in the optical segment of a Radio-over-Fiber system is discussed. The approach is based on the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for the Kerr nonlinear medium like optical fiber. A numerical solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for vortex solitons was obtained; the propagation of soliton-like vortices along an optical fiber is simulated. Besides, a phase-amplitude filter that generates optical signals with a given state of the orbital angular momentum and conservation of polarization during propagation through the optical fiber was modeled. The amplitude-phase filter was designated based on the spinor representation of Maxwell’s equations.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):121-128

### Chirp-to-amplitude converter based on an erbium fiber optic amplifier for radio-photon systems control

#### Abstract

The article proposes the principle of converting a chirped pulse signal into an amplitude-modulated signal (within each information pulse) based on a fiber-optic erbium amplifier. The possibility of using traditional EDFA for this task is analyzed. The parameters of the erbium medium of the amplifier providing the indicated conversion are found. The parameters of the converter have been evaluated.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):129-137

### Optical vector analyzers based on asymmetric two-band modulation

#### Abstract

This article presents the principle of operation and the results of experimental prototyping of optical vector analyzers based on asymmetric double sideband modulation, created at the R&D Institute of Applied Electrodynamics, Photonics and Living Systems within the framework of the state task for KNRTU-KAI. Asymmetric double sideband modulation is used to solve the problems of modern optical vector analyzers. The advantages of its use are the ability to obtain a doubled measurement frequency range (80 GHz), and, in some cases, the absence of measurement errors caused by the presence of higher order side bands in the probe radiation. The latter removes restrictions on the magnitude of the modulation index of the optical carrier, and, therefore, on the dynamic range of measurements. Two variants of optical vector analyzers with asymmetric double sideband modulation are considered - with asymmetry in frequency and amplitude. A key element of the first option is a phase-shift fiber Bragg grating, which is used to form a biased carrier asymmetric double sideband modulation signal. To implement asymmetric double sideband modulation with amplitude asymmetry, the disadvantages of the scheme implementing single sideband modulation are used to form two components of different amplitudes. To verify the developed theoretical principles, a universal set-up, described in the article, was made.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):138-144

### Restoration of acoustic field parameters measured by a fiber multi-sensor system on a turbomachine nozzle slice

#### Abstract

The article is devoted to the development and research of distributed fiber systems for aeroacoustic control of gas-air flow parameters on the nozzle section of turbomachines. The problem of source localization and restoration of the acoustic field of turbomachines is considered. The control of the aeroacoustic control system based on fiber-optic sensors based on the principles of self-learning is considered, since extreme controllers, although simply technically implemented, but have low speed, which is especially affected with a large number of control elements. Therefore, the aeroacoustic fiber-optic complex will be considered in the form of an automatic control system with the adaptation of the parameters of the mathematical model by the measured values of the flow parameters that change with the change of the

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):145-150

### Few-sensory microwave photonic address measuring system for esophageal manometry

#### Abstract

In the modern development of high-resolution manometry, the catheter and its elements are used at various levels of examination and treatment of the patient, both in operative and long-term follow-up systems. Therefore, the approach to the catheter as an information-measuring system that solves the problem of reproducible measurements of the spectral characteristics of each sensor in low-sensor or multi-sensor topologies comes to the fore. Moreover, due to well-known advantages, the use of fiber-optic Bragg gratings in catheters also comes to the fore. The paper presents the results of a study of the optomechanics of narrow-band classical fiber-optic Bragg gratings with a large mode coupling coefficient and spectrally addressed information recorded in them by various methods by introducing two symmetrical π-phase shifts into their structure. An analysis is made of the propagation of broadband laser radiation through spectrally addressable fiber-optic Bragg gratings in few-sensor applications. A theoretical justification is given of methods for measuring pressure and temperature, including to compensate for the effect of temperature in manometry. The technique of microwave photonic measurement conversion of pressure in the esophagus in the area of the upper and lower sphincters and the determination of its main methodological errors are given.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):151-162

### Multi-sensory microwave photonic address measuring system for intestinal manometry

#### Abstract

Solutions for a multi-sensor catheter in high resolution manometry based on classical interrogation with wave separation of fiber optic sensors or their polyharmonic probing already exist. Measuring systems based on interrogating arrays of the same type of Bragg gratings by the method of interference with a frequency shift and spatial separation of obtaining information from each grating separately, although their spatial resolution is slightly lower than required, are proposed. The indicated type of solutions requires expensive tunable lasers or narrow-band filters, and frequency-shifted interference, including two-frequency, with a microwave photonic interrogation method, entails the construction of an extremely complex interferometric optoelectronic circuit with the need to ensure its stable operation. Supplementing the task with the requirement to simplify and reduce the cost of the system as much as possible by means of microwave photonic sensing methods and using an array of structured gratings or gratings with phase shift in the system, and, finally, addressable fiber Bragg gratings, which we are actively developing, we will get a complete statement of the problem of constructing a multi-sensor catheter for intestinal manometry. The results of these task solutions are presented in this article.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):163-174

### Statistical method of electrocardiosignals analysis in arrhythmia detection problem

#### Abstract

The algorithm of definition and distinction of different types of arrhythmias is presented. It is based on the statistical method of the analysis of electrocardiosignals. Realizations of signals of such arrhythmias as bigeminia, trigeminia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, as well as electrocardiosignals with normal heart rate («norm») were used. The theoretical probabilities of making an erroneous decision are found. The work of the proposed algorithm is researched, and similar experimental probabilities of making an erroneous decision are calculated. Ways of development of the work are offered.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):175-179

### Development of methods and algorithms for determining cardiac arrhythmias

#### Abstract

An algorithm for detecting cardiac arrhythmias which based on spectral analysis of the electrocardiosignal is presented. Signals of bigeminy, trigeminy and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia were taken for analysis. A coefficient depending on the boundary frequency which displays the differences in the signal spectra is introduced. The boundary frequency at which the total error probability is minimal is found. The thresholds of decision-making at the found boundary frequency are determined.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):180-184

### System of control of the status «performance – sleep – tension» of drivers of vehicles based on the electric signal analysis

#### Abstract

This paper presents a study of heart rate variability indicators based on a phase-frequency analysis of an electrocardiogram. As part of the task of diagnosing the state of drowsiness and stress of vehicle drivers, a method for determining the level of wakefulness is described. We studied electrocardiograms with deviations of the heart rate from the normal signals. Examples of the analyzed signals, their parameters, as well as analysis results are given. Based on the obtained data, it is planned to build a multi-threshold analysis system.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):185-191

### Method of phase-frequency spectral analysis of electrocardiosignal in problems of home telemedicine

#### Abstract

The article presents a method of phase-frequency spectral analysis of an electrocardiogram signal for use in portable arrhythmia detectors. The selection of spectrum values for differentiating between normal and abnormal QRS complexes of the electrocardiogram signal is describe. Sample spectra for various QRS complexes of real life signals are given. We developed an algorithm for detecting arrhythmias and further distinguishing them. The results that was obtained by spectral analysis should be used to prevent the development dangerous type of arrhythmias and their timely exposure detection.

**Physics of Wave Processes and Radio Systems**. 2019;22(4):192-199