Vol 12, No 2 (2021)

Full Issue

ECONOMICS

Analysis of financing and role of world-class research and education centers in the Russian Federation

Anisimova V.Y., Gaffarli E.P.

Abstract

The article analyzes the role of science in the development of state, world-class scientific and educational centers and their role in the innovative development of regions. The article presents the indicators of financing of REC. The sources and mechanisms of REC financing are analyzed. The effectiveness of functioning and impact of REC on the economy of the region is revealed. Possible reasons are given for the fact that the share of federal budget funds, specifically grants, is no more than 1–4,5 %, depending on the REC. It is noted that the main expenditures of the regional budget are directed to fundamental and applied research that meets the criteria and requirements of the regional market, the purchase of educational and scientific equipment, and the support and development of production enterprises that are members of REC. The creation of the REC will raise the prestige of science in the state, and the real sector of the economy is included in this process. The activities of scientific and educational center will also affect the structure of the GRP of the region. It was found that the functioning of RECs has positive socio-economic effects. This is reflected in the REC's performance targets, which are reflected in their work programs. In general, the functioning of the REC will have positive socio-economic effects, such as increasing the standard of living and attractiveness of the region; improving the environmental situation; increasing the production of innovative and high-tech products; increasing the level of GRP; creating new jobs; improving and developing the scientific and educational environment of the region.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):7-18
pages 7-18 views

Comparative analysis of methods for assessing the effectiveness of banking activities

Anisimova V.Y., Komisarov A.S.

Abstract

The global economic shock associated with the consequences of COVID-19 has shown the need for further development of ways to predict changes in key performance indicators of organizations. The financial market is a particularly important segment, as the adaptation of the public sector in this area is much slower than necessary. This work reveals the theoretical aspects of the concept of efficiency of banking activity in the Russian Federation, and also gives an idea of various methods of its study. It is concluded that the use of the methods of the theoretical block in assessing the effectiveness of banking activities should be applied in the study of customer satisfaction with the activities of the organization, as well as in the study of the level of social efficiency in the structure of the organization. The article also reflects the current state of the banking sector and provides a forecast of its development for 2021. The positive and negative features of each method of assessing banking activity are presented. The final part of the article analyzes the problems faced by the banking sector and displays a list of government steps to overcome them. In the process of writing this work, its goal was achieved, namely, the methods of evaluating the effectiveness of banking activities were studied. In accordance with this goal, the following tasks were solved: the concept of «efficiency of banking activity» was considered, the indicators of the banking sector in the Russian Federation were analyzed, the main problems for the development of the banking activity assessment system were studied, and the main methods of assessing banking activity were characterized.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):19-28
pages 19-28 views

Financing of innovative projects in industry

Galachieva S.V.

Abstract

A distinctive feature of innovation-oriented enterprises is a higher demand for external sources of financing, while innovative activities are characterized by a sufficiently high degree of uncertainty and risk, therefore, the important principles of financing innovative projects are the multiplicity of financing sources, flexibility and adaptability to a rapidly changing external environment. Using in-house funds in the development and implementation of an innovative project provides maximum scale of actions in making management decisions. At the same time, international experience in the innovative projects implementation proves the effectiveness of debt and equity instruments use for project financing. The article discusses the main instruments for financing innovative projects in the Russian Federation, highlights the main stages of finding and attracting financial resources. In addition, within the framework of this study, the costs of technological innovations and the sources of their financing, the patent activity of enterprises in the Russian Federation were analyzed. The main economic reasons that impede the development of innovations project management are listed. The necessity of developing measures to expand the access of innovative enterprises to loaned sources of financing has been substantiated.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):29-35
pages 29-35 views

Element composition of the innovation potential of industrial enterprises

Goman K.I.

Abstract

At the present stage of the development of innovative activity of industrial enterprises, it is necessary to implement measures, the implementation of which is, first of all, the creation of an innovative reserve characterized by innovative potential. The approaches presented by the author to the structure of the elements of the innovation potential, firstly, allow us to identify the missing elements in its composition, secondly, to determine the level of development of these elements, and thirdly, to formulate proposals to eliminate the shortcomings. Currently, the state has initiated a number of federal programs that are aimed at forming and supporting the development of innovative potential both at the level of enterprises, regions, and the state as a whole. The key direction that determines the possibility of achieving the goals in these sectors is the development of personnel component of the innovative potential of domestic enterprises. The analysis of the conditions for the formation of the innovative potential of domestic industrial enterprises allows us to judge the unsatisfactory form of its innovative development, in which there is a significant gap between the requirements of innovative activity, as well as the requirements of the external and internal environment, the ability to adequately respond to the factors of influence. In this regard, in order to develop the innovation potential, the author proposes the structure of its elements and the analysis of the factors influencing the innovation activity of industrial enterprises, as well as bringing it into a balanced state of its external and internal environment. As the main tool for the development of innovative potential and bringing it into a balanced state, organizational and managerial factors are used to increase the efficiency of innovation activities and ensure the activation of the innovative potential of industrial enterprises.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):36-42
pages 36-42 views

Managing the digital transformation of the industrial sector

Zhityaeva O.I.

Abstract

The article examines the issues of managing the digital transformation of the Russian industrial sector. The author notes that a new content of the industrial development strategy is currently on the agenda – a digital strategy, for the development of which there are a number of prerequisites: the availability of the Internet, the use of digital services, mobile devices, and other digital technologies. The article deals with the issues of digital transformation management and the directions of its development. The author reveals the advantages of implementing digital transformation, suggests directions for implementing the roadmap for digital transformation of the industrial sector, and identifies trends in the digital transformation of the industrial sector. It is noted that digital transformation begins with the creation of a digital platform where the interests of industry, the state and science are united. Digital platforms are proposed to be organized by type of economic activity (FEA), using digital ecosystems. Digital platforms are proposed to be created in the areas of digital transformation, such as: uber-ization, the Internet of things, neural technologies, Big Data, network interaction with partners, blockchain, crowdfunding. The article reflects that one of the types of digitalization is uber-the transformation of the economy, which represents a digital service for the provision of services, the rejection of hierarchical multi-level organizational structures, to production and management structures based on the blockchain. Uber-ization of the economy is a digital management service that includes a whole range of other digital services. In this article, the author proposes a model of digital transformation of the industrial sector of the Russian Federation based on the creation of «digital doubles» that allow using such advantages as reducing the time of business processes, increasing the accuracy of calculations, and improving the quality of work performed. Digital transformation forms new forms of organizational, innovation and management activities, takes a leading position in the development of domestic industrial potential, new competitive advantages by improving business processes for knowledge and information management, increasing the number of technological innovations, and filling them with professional competencies.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):43-50
pages 43-50 views

Rates regulation of the sphere of solid municipal waste management

Kuznetsova O.V.

Abstract

In Russia, the problem of garbage is very acute, but only in recent years attempts have been made to solve it. One of the directions is the systematization of the industry and the transfer of responsibility for the removal, sorting and disposal of garbage to regional operators. The compensation mechanism for the costs of such companies involves the establishment of a tariff for municipal services for the treatment of MSW. Setting a tariff that would cover all the costs of regional operators and at the same time be accessible to the public is not an easy task, especially since it should also provide for investment costs for the development of the industry. One of the ways to reduce the tariff is digitalization. The experience of using modern digital solutions shows that they can not only improve the quality of services provided, but also reduce costs, which will have a positive impact on the amount of the tariff for municipal services for the treatment of MSW. The article deals with the problems of tariff regulation of the sphere of solid municipal waste management, for which the method of tariff formation is given, the factors that determine the amount of payment for utility services for solid municipal waste management, as well as the problems of the industry that affect the tariff. The problem of garbage is the most urgent, and the issue of competent financing, including through the establishment of a tariff, will help to overcome the main barriers to its solution.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):51-58
pages 51-58 views

Cluster entity development challenges and possible solutions

Makarenya T.A.

Abstract

For the modern economy of Russia, the problem of the development of the country's industrial complex is acute. An analysis of industrial development trends shows that despite the implementation of import substitution programs, industry has not become the dominant sector in the country's GDP structure, development trends are slowing down, new innovative enterprises and jobs appear in a single quantity. The country's industry is characterized by new institutional formations – clusters. Cluster entities can be innovative-territorial, industrial and other. Cluster education is an association of industrial enterprises, scientific and educational structures, as well as other actors whose results participate in the formation of the finished product. Thus, the study of the problems of the development of cluster formations is one of the important tasks in determining the weaknesses, strengths, and directions for the development of the country's industry.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):59-66
pages 59-66 views

Formation of innovation and investment development directions of the Samara Region systemic enterprises

Orlova K.Y.

Abstract

The article discusses the directions of innovation and investment development of the strategic, system-forming, enterprises of the Samara Region, which were determined on the basis of an analysis of information about the real situation (2018–2020) and the planned future (from 2021), obtained as a result of a questionnaire survey of managers about the directions of investment, criteria for making investment decisions, as well as the strategic goals of investment plans. The analysis of investment directions was carried out, on the basis of which the types of investment activity of enterprises were identified as active, proactive and passive. Criteria for making investment decisions are considered, on the basis of which the types of investment behavior of enterprises were divided into leader behavior associated with the economic justification of investment decisions, and follower behavior characterized by an empirical decision rule. The average values of the investment projects characteristics – the payback period of investments, the excess of the rate of return over the loan rate, and the discount rate – required for making a decision on investment, as well as the volumes of investment projects in different periods are given. On the basis of the investment objectives considered, three types of strategies of system-forming enterprises are formulated: aggressive, moderate and conservative. Based on the analysis of the results of the survey, the features of innovative activity, as well as the directions and prerequisites for the innovative development of the Samara Region strategic enterprises are determined.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):67-77
pages 67-77 views

Features of the formation of an institutional approach to the development of domestic industrial production

Podbornova E.S., Melnikov M.A.

Abstract

The article examines the current state and potential development of the domestic industry on the basis of an assessment of the existing discussion in the economic community for the validity and feasibility of the current import substitution policy in the context of the intensifying foreign policy confrontation. An overview of a number of proposed directions for improving the industrial complex of the Russian Federation using innovations in the management of development and improvement processes based on research on existing and potential achievements can help in determining a rational vector for the development of domestic production forces with further strengthening of the national economy with a simultaneous increase in the welfare of the country's population. An analysis of the measures proposed by a number of authors for the development of domestic industry is carried out, an assessment is made of the proposed plans and roadmaps based on the organization of interaction between public and private structures, to increase the effectiveness of measures taken in the creation of a modern industry on an innovative basis in both production and organizational spheres. The experience available to date in the implementation of roadmaps and international cooperation programs makes it possible to assess the previous theories. And the existing achievements in this area make it possible to further improve the processes of modernization of the management of the domestic industrial complex. The use of the institutional approach in relation to measures to improve the domestic industrial complex makes it possible to more clearly form the mechanisms for the development, implementation and control of measures, taking into account the specifics of the factors affecting the final version.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):78-83
pages 78-83 views

Main aspects of interaction of government and the entrepreneurial sector in project management

Sedykh I.O., Yashin S.N., Lapshina E.N.

Abstract

The interaction of state and entrepreneurs in a modern economy is a necessary measure for the effective implementation of the activities of both parties. This article explores some of the mechanisms of interaction between government bodies and the business sector of the economy in terms of project activities and project management. Public-private partnership issues are increasingly being discussed in the world political arena as an effective mechanism for interaction between the state and business. The need for effective communications in the chain «power-business-society» is emphasized by many authors. Communication between the public and commercial sectors is a process that reflects the levers and methods they use to mutually influence and promote their interests. The partnership between government, business and society is closely correlated with the successful functioning of the commercial sector and public administration, which is expressed in the successful establishment of the processes of socio-economic development of the state. The successful functioning of public-private partnership is one of the indicators of the correct implementation of the mechanism for supporting entrepreneurship by public authorities, and also reflects the level of development of the state in general and its subjects, in particular. The development of public-private partnerships plays an important role in building a long-term development strategy for the regions of the Russian Federation.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):84-91
pages 84-91 views

Assessment of financial stability and payment capacity of Russian companies

Tyukavkin N.M., Vasilenko V.S.

Abstract

The article discusses the concepts of financial stability, solvency, solvency ratios, financial reporting, financial analysis, liquidity indicators, solvency indicators, balance sheet, report on financial results, considers the advantages of implementing software products for the automatic generation of financial indicators based on financial statements. Financial management is becoming a time-consuming and priority task facing the management personnel of any modern enterprise, regardless of its field of activity. The financial stability of an enterprise is a complex concept that reflects a financial condition in which the enterprise is able to freely dispose of funds, balance financial flows, carry out effective activities in conditions of entrepreneurial risk and a dynamically changing environment, while maintaining solvency, having investment potential and a number of competitive advantages. The system of indicators characterizing the solvency and financial stability of the enterprise is the most important aspect, therefore, this article also discusses the indicators of financial stability, solvency, their calculation procedure, as well as the size and results. Methods for assessing the information contained in the financial statements are determined, examples of calculating the liquidity and solvency ratios of enterprises are given. The ways of increasing the financial stability and solvency of companies are described and considered.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):92-100
pages 92-100 views

Innovative approaches to achieving sustainable development goals in modern Russian economy

Chirkunova E.K., Shekhova N.V.

Abstract

The article is devoted to the creation of an effective institutional system for sustainable development as the most important issue of the modern scientific, political and public agenda. Sustainable development paradigm was adopted by the world community by general consent several decades ago, but nevertheless not a single country in the world, including Russia, has an efficient technology to achieve the corresponding goals today. The article reveals the content of the definition «sustainable development», describes the preconditions and a brief history of the operationalization of the sustainable development concept, identifies the main problems of the practical implementation of different countries policy instruments, including Russia, to achieve sustainable development goals. The authors conduct a brief analysis of modern national strategic documents on sustainable development, elaborate recommendations for the innovative approaches application to the sustainable development goals implementation in Russia, as well as for ensuring effective institutional conditions for their practical implementation. At the same time, special note taken of a radical change in the value paradigm of public consciousness, adequate regulatory support and the development of composite indicators and criteria for sustainable development.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):101-110
pages 101-110 views

STATE AND MUNICIPAL ADMINISTRATION

Progress in the implementation of the digital economy and its prospects in the Samara Region

Kliment’yeva S.V., Ilina A.M.

Abstract

The basis of world socio-economic development in recent years is information and communication technologies (ICT), which continue to rapidly develop and create new products and services. On their basis, innovative development takes place, there is an increase in the productivity and efficiency of organizations. Digitalization is becoming a necessary and leading component of maintaining and increasing the competitiveness of states and individual territorial entities, the most important prerequisite for improving the standard of living of the population. The development of digital technologies and their successful implementation are facilitated by the adopted state programs, such as the national program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation». The authors determined that the population of the Russian Federation and the Samara region is increasingly mastering digital competencies, using advanced digital technologies, and using services provided by state and municipal organizations. Regional authorities, acting within the framework of the national program «Digital Economy of the Russian Federation», develop local programs in accordance with the tasks to be solved on the basis of the previously achieved economic state. At the same time, the Samara Region is a dynamically developing territory that has good prerequisites for the active and multidimensional implementation of ICT achievements in the economic life of the region, and its authorities are consistently introducing digital technologies into the regional economy. Nevertheless, in the region there are problems with the staffing of this process, the population is not fully covered by the opportunity to access the Internet and receive a number of state and municipal services using specialized digital services. In these conditions, in the Samara Region, it is necessary to make greater use of the mechanisms of public-private partnership in the implementation of projects for the digitalization of the economy, to increase the innovative component of the development of enterprises in the region, to expand and improve the opportunities for the population to acquire digital competencies.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):111-122
pages 111-122 views

Impact of the introduction of artificial intelligence on Russia’s economic development under the pandemic conditions

Matveeva Y.V., Chigwanda M.T., Matveeva V.P.

Abstract

Impact of the introduction of artificial intelligence on Russia’s economic development under the pandemic conditions

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):123-131
pages 123-131 views

MANAGEMENT

Improving the public administration of investment projects under the public-private partnership (on the example of airport infrastructure development of the Russian Federation)

Nemchinov O.A.

Abstract

In the modern economy, very often there is the problem of lack of state funding in major infrastructure projects. In this regard, partnership between the public and private sectors of the economy is becoming a more effective way of solving problems related to the modernization of transport infrastructure, construction and provision of services, the development of urban areas. Especially of public-private partnership mechanism true for regional economies, where thanks to it there is a more dynamic development of local capital markets, goods and services. The study analyzed the conceptual apparatus, essence and forms of public-private partnership, identified the features and risks in the implementation of PPP projects, assessed the results of global and domestic experience in the use of public-private partnerships, developed recommendations for improving the procedures for implementing public-private partnerships in the field of development of the infrastructure of the Russian airport enterprises.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):132-139
pages 132-139 views

Innovation in the sphere of advertising: latest innovations and prospects of development

Сураева М.О., Suraeva M.O.

Abstract

Advertising innovation is growing at a fast pace today. We observe how advertising is becoming more and more digital, it has also become easier to use, now it can be done not only by an agency, but by any person who has one or another category of listeners, an audience in a social network. But it should be noted that digital advertising still does not completely replace outdoor advertising, which has undergone dramatic changes over the past few years: new creative ways of presenting product value to the consumer have appeared, often using information technology. This article discusses the main innovations in the field of digital and outdoor advertising over the past five years, as well as the prospects for their development in the near future. The article reveals new methods of communication between the seller and the client using advertising, the reasons for using contextual advertising (safety, efficiency), reflects how to correctly apply the technologies of innovative types of advertising today and how companies understand what the consumer needs and why they need to focus on social and digital marketing. It also analyzed what factors should be considered when choosing advertising methods.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):140-146
pages 140-146 views

HUMANE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Reasons for the professional deformation of intelligence officers

Makhmudova I.N.

Abstract

The article reveals the psychological mechanism of professional and psychological behavior of intelligence officers in conditions of risk. Professional deformation is associated mainly with the specifics of the profession, the situation in which special services specialists have to work. The motives of the readiness to act in the regime of extreme danger and increased danger are revealed. The factors influencing the specifics of the behavior of different employees to act differently in the same situations are described. The theoretical understanding of personality and internal locus-control is given. In this regard, these motives and non-motives of risk are revealed, as well as risk for the sake of. The reasons why there is a probability of personnel risks in the organization are revealed. A comparative characteristic of the concepts of "stress resistance" and "self-control" is given. The influence of the propensity of a special services specialist to take risks on his psychological readiness to take action in the extreme mode is shown. The relationship between risk readiness and motivation to avoid failures is described. An explanation is given why older employees are less prepared for risky actions in non-standard situations.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):147-153
pages 147-153 views

MATHEMATICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ECONOMICS

Equations of nonlinear dynamics of development of industrial enterprises, taking into account the amount of its maximum profit

Saraev A.L., Saraev L.A.

Abstract

In the published article, new modifications of economic and mathematical models of the dynamic development of enterprises are proposed, the production of which is being restored due to the introduction of their own investments. The developed models are presented in the form of systems of differential equations for an arbitrary number of production factors. Stationary solutions of these systems of equations correspond to the equilibrium states of the operation of enterprises and represent the limiting values of the factors of production. Two versions of systems of differential balance equations for enterprises, describing the growth of factors of production and output, have been established. In the first case, the growth of resources and output is limited by the limiting values of the factors of production. In the second case, the growth of resources and output is limited by the pre-calculated values of the factors of production that correspond to the value of the maximum profit of the enterprise. It is shown that the growth of production factors of the enterprise should not exceed the values corresponding to the value of the maximum profit. Otherwise, the company starts to operate at a loss. In the presented models, proportional, progressive and digressive depreciation deductions are considered. The constructed models make it possible to describe various modes of operation of enterprises. Such regimes include a stable output of products by enterprises, a temporary suspension of the work of enterprises during its technical re-equipment, and a temporary partial curtailment of production.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):154-170
pages 154-170 views

Methodology for calculating risk factors and assessing the sensitivity of portfolio asset returns when investing in personnel

Balaeva A.Y., Belyakov A.A.

Abstract

The authors previously proposed an economic and mathematical model of investing in personnel and also the algorithm for determining of risk-free and the size of non-market risks. The goals of the article are to develop the threat rates and risk sensitive search methods during engineering of investment portfolio through arbitrage pricing theory for investment in personnel to return on investment. Questions of risk evaluation when choosing assets to invest in human capital of a company are fully provided. The covariance structure of allocation of funds of risk-free part of investment portfoliois addressed, that helps to calculate covariance between return on assets and threat rates of investment patterns that is necessary to find factor betas of portfolio. Also, the matrix of budget sharpening is offered that shows the detail investment budget’s risk-free pieces split for all assets having regard to risks. The elements got standard interpretation. Then there is the balance condition that is to implement the proof of calculation. Finally, the method of how to calculate and estimate them is given.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):171-179
pages 171-179 views

Simulation modeling of the dynamics of competitive interaction between manufacturers of light-engine aircraft equipment in the conditions of volumetric competition

Grishanov G.M., Kolychev S.A., Ivanov D.Y.

Abstract

Enterprises of the domestic light-engine aircraft industry are in tough competition both in the domestic and foreign markets. To minimize the risks associated with strategic interaction with participants in these markets, enterprises should form their production programs based on a comprehensive analysis of the competitive environment. Determination of the optimal equilibrium values of the output volumes for each participant does not provide information on the dynamics of the interaction of competitors. In this regard, in order to describe the dynamics of market relations, it becomes necessary to develop a dynamic simulation model for the development of the light aircraft market. The paper considers a dynamic model of the problem of choosing a production program by enterprises producing light aircraft equipment in the duopole market, using a discrete simulation computer model. This model is represented by several algorithms generated in the Simulink software package (Matlab), using the library of standard operators of this package. This model allows to determine the trajectories of changes in the equilibrium values of quantities, prices and gross income. Also, using this model, it is possible to assess the influence of the costs incurred by enterprises on the implementation of the production program, on the results of market interaction, to determine the most significant parameters and, on this basis, to form a decision on the choice of a competitive strategy.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(2):180-191
pages 180-191 views

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