Vol 20, No 3 (2021)

Full Issue


Design and development of combustion chambers for gas turbine engines based on calculations of various levels of complexity

Aleksandrov Y.B., Nguyen T.D., Mingazov B.G.


The article proposes a method for designing combustion chambers for gas turbine engines based on a combination of the use of calculations in a one-dimensional and three-dimensional formulation of the problem. This technique allows you to quickly design at the initial stage of creating and development of the existing combustion chambers using simplified calculation algorithms. At the final stage, detailed calculations are carried out using three-dimensional numerical calculations. The method includes hydraulic calculations, on the basis of which the distribution of the air flow passing through the main elements of the combustion chamber is determined. Then, the mixing of the gas flow downstream of the flame tube head and the air passing through the holes in the flame tube is determined. The mixing quality determines the distribution of local mixture compositions along the length of the flame tube. The calculation of the combustion process is carried out with the determination of the combustion efficiency, temperature, concentrations of harmful substances and other parameters. The proposed method is tested drawing on the example of a combustion chamber of the cannular type. The results of numerical calculations, experimental data and values obtained using the proposed method for various operating modes of the engine are compared.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):7-23
pages 7-23 views

Analysis of basic concepts of advanced engines for supersonic civil aircraft on the basis of foreign designers’ experience

Alendar A.D., Grunin A.N., Siluyanova M.V.


The work contains the results of a study of the basic design concepts of advanced engines for supersonic civil aircraft, carried out in order to make a forecast for the development of aviation technology, taking into account the experience of foreign designers.  Engine designs are presented that are considered to be the most rational ones from the point of view of achieving high technical and economic parameters in the range of cruise Mach numbers from 1.2 to 5. Advantages and disadvantages of various engine designs, as well as issues of engine regulation at different flight modes, are discussed. The parameters of some engines being developed and studied at present for supersonic civil aircraft are presented. The analysis of the designs shows that an increase in the cruise Mach number leads to a complication of engine designs in the direction of an increase in the number of controlled elements, the number of working fluid flow paths, a complication of the architecture of turbomachines, as well as in the direction of using combined schemes and alternative fuels. The aspiration to meet new reinforced ecological requirements through the use of new, complex engine designs that differ significantly from traditional gas turbine engines will inevitably entail additional technical risks due to the insufficient level of technological readiness of most of the new controlled units.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):24-36
pages 24-36 views

Laser-scanning rangefinder fixed on a gimbal with two degrees of freedom

Zelenskiy V.A., Kapalin M.V.


A laser-scanning rangefinder mounted on a gimbal with two degrees of freedom is presented. The rangefinder can be used as part of a navigation system of an unmanned aerial vehicle to avoid obstacles or prevent collisions. Compared to stereo cameras, the device requires significantly less computing resources and is less dependent on lighting conditions. Compared to integrated lidars, the cost of the device is by an order lower. А model of the device was developed and an obstacle avoidance flight was simulated in the Gazebo simulator. The PX4/Avoidance software was used as an autopilot. As a result of a model experiment, we found that a scanning laser rangefinder can provide autonomous navigation with obstacle avoidance.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):37-48
pages 37-48 views

Experimental studies of the components of high-frequency ion engine RD0310

Kazbanov A.A., Dronov P.A., Spivak O.O., Derkachev A.B.


Testing of prototypes of equipment is the most important stage of their development. The article considers a low-power high-frequency ion engine RD0310 which was manufactured and tested at the production base of the KBHA joint-stock company. The tests were carried out in a vacuum chamber with a volume of 5.66 m3, the vacuum pumping system of which allows for a pressure inside the chamber of no more than 1·10-5mm Hg. with xenon consumption of up to 0.7 mg/s, which is as close as possible to space conditions. During the tests, the cyclogram of starting and stopping the engine was worked out, and the thrust dependences on the flow rate of the working fluid, the power of the high-frequency generator and the voltage at the emission electrode were obtained. According to the test results, stable engine operation was achieved and the following values were obtained: the thrust of 9.1 mN at a specific impulse of 3740 s.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):49-56
pages 49-56 views

Introduction to the problem of calculating the parameters of the mixing chamber of an afterburning bypass engine

Karev O.D.


The article considers the problem of calculation accuracy when using mathematical models of gas-turbine engines of the second level of complexity, using the example of a device for mixing the flows of the core engine and the bypass duct of a gas turbine engine, and suggests methods for solving it. The processes taking place in mixing chambers of air-breather engines are considered to be difficult for mathematical modeling since the exchange of kinetic and thermal energies of the flows characterized by different velocities, pressures, temperatures and chemical composition occurs in them simultaneously. The mixer does not only ensure mixing of flows from different engine ducts, but also acts as a kind of throttle. It regulates the pressure downstream of the fan and, consequently, air consumption in the bypass duct, thus affecting directly the fan characteristics and the distribution of flows over the engine ducts. The paper presents the dependencies of the workflow parameters that allow for more accurate verification of mixer models of the second level of complexity.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):57-64
pages 57-64 views

Analysis of characteristics of electric propulsion systems intended for carrying out maneuvers of maintenance of low Earth working orbit of small satellites

Salmin V.V., Volotsuev V.V., Nikitin A.V.


An analysis of the mass of the working fluid and motor operating time of electric propulsion systems applied as a part of small spacecraft to carry out maneuvers of maintenance of the low Earth working orbit is carried out. The analysis is carried out for the small spacecraft with the weight in the range from 300 to 1000 kg functioning in working orbits with the height in the range from 400 to 600 km. When carrying out the analysis the values of the specific impulse of the propulsion system in the range from 800 to 1600 sec were accepted. Procedural guidelines for assessing the value of the required characteristic speed depending on the aerodynamic drag force, as well as for assessing the value of mass of the working fluid with account for the value of the specific impulse and defining the motor operating time of the propulsion system depending on the exhaust speed of the working fluid were used. The results of calculations given in the article show that the mass of the working fluid and the motor operating time vary depending on the height of the orbit and the mass of the small spacecraft and allow making quick preliminary assessment of the main design characteristics of the electric propulsion engines used to carry out maneuvers of maintenance of the low Earth working orbit of small spacecraft with different weight dimension characteristics during the prescribed term of active existence.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):65-76
pages 65-76 views

Estimation and analysis of the influence of ionizing radiation on the operation of nanosatellite onboard radio electronic equipment

Tsaplin S.V., Bolychev S.A.


The paper presents the results of a calculation aimed to study the influence of ionizing, bremsstrahlung radiation on the operation of a nanosatellite obtained during the implementation of the project 0777-2020-0018 in 2020. A comparative analysis of the results of calculating the specific ionization and radiation energy losses of protons (from 0.1 to 400 MeV) and electrons (from 0.04 to 7 MeV), as well as their path lengths in aluminum according to the formulas of various authors and the database of materials of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies is presented. Based on the analysis results, the annual dose in the aluminum structure of the SamSat – ION nanosatellite in a circular sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) is calculated. All calculations are based on the data of the energy spectra of protons and electrons of the SSO given in the “Information system Spenvis of the European Space Agency”. The results of calculating the integral fluxes in aluminum under the action of protons and electrons of a circular SSO for different thicknesses are obtained, and the fraction of passed particles is shown in the approximation of a single-layer stack. The radiation resistance of the electronic elements ISL70321SEH, ISL73321SEH and Virtex-4QV, Virtex-5QV included in the SamSat – ION avionics and its ability to operate during a year was assessed.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):77-96
pages 77-96 views


Development of a methodology for calculating the working process of a small-size two-stroke internal combustion engine

Biryuk V.V., Gorshkalev A.A., Zakharov M.O., Larin V.L.


On the basis of the available theoretical calculations, methods for calculating the working process and power characteristics of internal combustion engines and the experimental studies carried out, a method for calculating the working process for small-sized two-stroke internal combustion engines was developed and tested. In the course of this work, the following results were obtained: the parameters of the working process and power characteristics of a small two-stroke internal combustion engine; the parameters obtained by calculation during the study of the Evolution 20GX2 engine were compared with the results of an experimental study. According to the results of the comparison, deviations in the values of the parameters of the engine under study from the results of the experimental study at the maximum power and maximum speed modes were identified.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):97-109
pages 97-109 views

Application of gas analyzers for the control of fuel in the air environment of rocket and space industry enterprises

Bulgakov A.B., Vashchuk S.P., Panshin R.A.


The presented work shows the necessity of organization of individual instrumental control of the content of rocket fuel and its products in the air of rocket-space industry enterprises. No accurate analysis of gas analyzers presented on the Russian market, providing individual instrumental control of concentrations of heptyl and its derivatives in the workplace air is available. Therefore, the task of express, automatic, selective and simultaneous monitoring of heptyl vapors and derivatives of its transformation in the air of industrial premises by one instrument and replacing the imported gas analyzers remains urgent. It is shown that the solution of the posed problem is possible on the basis of the optical absorption method. The requirements to be met by the gas analyzer are formulated. Approximate wavelengths at which simultaneous measurement of concentrations of heptyl and its derivatives in an air sample is possible have been determined. The ways of realization of individual gas analyzers having small mass-size characteristics are outlined. Structural schemes for infra-red gas analyzers have been proposed: multi-channel; single-channel (with frequency modulation of radiation). Tasks for further research are formulated.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):110-118
pages 110-118 views

State of the art of theory and technology of incremental forming

Grechnikov F.V., Surudin S.V., Erisov Y.A., De Alvarenga R.


On the basis of the literature review carried out, the article assesses the current state and development trends of the theory and technology of incremental forming – a promising technological process for rapid prototyping of parts from sheet blanks. The basics of the process and the equipment for its implementation, the mechanism of deformation during incremental forming are described. The developed solution for exporting the trajectory of the deforming tool from the CAM to the CAE system is described.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):119-137
pages 119-137 views

Three-dimensional periodic thermoelastichydrodynamic modeling of hydrodynamic processes of a thrust bearing

Sokolov N.V., Khadiev M.B., Fedotov P.E., Fedotov E.M.


The article presents the basic principles of three-dimensional mathematical modeling of the operation of a thrust plain bearing with fixed pads of the compressor. The model is based on the periodic thermoelastichydrodynamic (PTEHD) theory which allows calculating the temperature at the inlet to the pad and considering the complete thermal pattern. A description of the main provisions of the numerical implementation is given. In the stationary mode of the bearing’s operation, using the Sm2Px3Txτ program, numerical experiments were carried out aimed at studying different boundary conditions to the Reynolds equation, the physics of the hydrodynamic process in the lubricating and boundary films of the bearing and the heat propagation in the body of the pad and thrust collar.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):138-151
pages 138-151 views

Application of the vacuum casting technology in the production of small-size gas turbine engine blade machines

Faramazyan A.M., Remchukov S.S., Demidyuk I.V.


The application of casting technologies in the production of parts and assemblies of small-size gas turbine engines is justified in the paper. The technology of vacuum casting in gypsum molds was tested during the production of an experimental centrifugal compressor of a small-size gas turbine engine. On the basis of a 3D model of the designed centrifugal compressor, computational studies of vacuum casting were carried out and rational parameters of the technological process were determined. Prototypes of the developed centrifugal compressor of a small-size gas turbine engine were made. The results of calculations and the performed technological experiment confirmed the fill rate of the gating form and the absence of short pour. The distribution of shrinkage porosity and cavities corresponds to the design values and is concentrated in the central part of the casting that is subjected to subsequent machining. The area of the blades, disc and sleeve is formed without defects. The use of casting technologies in the production of parts and assemblies of small-size gas turbine engines assures the required quality with a comparatively low price of the finished product, making it possible to achieve the balance between the cost of the technology and the quality of the product made according to this technology.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):152-159
pages 152-159 views


Optimizing the allocation of technological resources of an air transport system in the presence of a schedule and fuzzy input data

Romanenko V.A.


The problem of optimal allocation of technological resources (operators) of a technical or organizational-technical system, designed to serve certain objects (operands) according to a given schedule, is considered. We take into account the necessity of incorporating, together with the main, preparatory and final operations, the possibility to select one or several operators for operand service into the service process, as well as the dependence of the operations duration on the factors characterized by uncertainty. Due to the supposed absence of statistics, expert-assigned indefinite values in the form of triangular fuzzy numbers are used. The optimization problem is formulated as a mathematical programming problem with a fuzzy criterion and clear-cut constraints, consisting in finding such a distribution of a given number of operators to serve each operand from a given set which minimizes the target function that takes into account deviations from the schedule (delay) with the service termination. Typical examples of systems for which the problem is relevant are the production complexes of air transport enterprises operating in conditions of uncertainty when it is necessary to ensure the regularity and safety of air transportation. A model example of solving the problem of allocating mobile refueling facilities at a hub airport, taking into account the peculiarities of its schedule, is presented. It is shown that the capabilities of standard personal computer software are sufficient for the solution.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):160-170
pages 160-170 views


Artificial intelligence in aircraft design and the role of professor V.G. Maslov’s scientific school in the process of its development

Borgest N.M., Grigoriev V.A., Kuzmichev V.S.


The article was prepared for the 95th anniversary of the birth of Valentin Grigorievich Maslov, Doctor of Science (Engineering), Professor, founder of the school for optimal design of aircraft engine parameters, head of the engine CAD system department (Department 6) of the applied research laboratory (ONIL-2) of Kuibyshev Aviation Institute named after academician S.P. Korolyov. The stages of creating the theoretical foundation for optimal design of aircraft are discussed. The role of Professor V.G. Maslov in the formalization of knowledge in aircraft design in a context of uncertainty and the importance of multi-criteria assessment of design solutions are described. The work of Department 6 ONIL-2 (KuAI-SSAU), led by Valentin Grigorievich, provided Samara scientific school with a leading position in the field of optimal design of engines for aircraft of varying function. These works contributed to the formation of a modern understanding of the intellectualization of systems and the successful start of work in the field of their creation. The development of Professor V.G. Maslov’s ideas in the works of his students is shown.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2021;20(3):171-190
pages 171-190 views

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