Vol 26, No 1 (2020)

Full Issue

Articles
Peoples of the Middle Volga Region in the writing and archival materials of G.F. Miller
Shkerdina N.O.
Abstract

For the first time in regional historiography, the author carried out a comprehensive historiographic analysis of information on ethnography, linguistics, religious studies, regional history, sociopolitical and sociocultural life of the Finno-Ugric and Turkic peoples of the Middle Volga contained in the works of the outstanding German, historian, geograph and ethnograph G.F. Miller. Value of the submitted material is comprised in the research of the collected by the scientist of copies of unique historical documents, manuscripts of his unpublished works, numerous notes and other valuable materials. The relevance of the subject is predetermined by the development of a perspective trend of historical research – development of the problem of relationship between the government and society on the example of the development of the regions of Russia in the XVIII century in the works by G.F. Miller. This study is based on the principles of historicism and multi-factor nature of the historical process, realized through the use of historical-genetic, historical-comparative, historical-biographical, dialectic and typological methods of research. The author concluded that the writings of the scientist allowed not only to carry out detailed description of spiritual and material life of the representatives of Turkic and Finno-Ugric peoples of the Middle Volga Region, to define their ethnoconfessional characteristics, but also to take into account historical, geographical and geopolitical conditions influencing their development and integration into sociocultural, sociopolitical and social and economic space of the Russian Empire. Scientific heritage of G.F. Miller also contributed to the creation of the system of methodological bases of archiving and source study. Potential of this heritage for carrying out different researches is high, partly owing to the handwritten archive of the historian in German in the funds of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts, containing extensive cohort of unique historical documents, not introduced into scientific discourse.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):8-16
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«Tiger of the Revolution» – G.A. Gershuni
Leonov M.I.
Abstract

The author in the article explores the life path and social activities of the founder and leader of the Socialist Revolutionary Party and the Combat Organization, the organizer of the assassination attempts on the Minister of Internal Affairs D.S. Sipyagin, Governor N.M. Bogdanovich, Governor-General Prince I.M. Obolensky. The relevance of the declared topic is explained by interest in revolutionary events and personalities in Russia, rethinking and re-reading them thanks to modern realities and facts, recreated thanks to comparative historical and historical-biographical methods. The author concludes that, first of all, thanks to the efforts of G.A. Gershuni was founded the party of socialists-revolutionaries, its Central Committee was formed. Until his arrest in May 1903, he was the undisputed leader of the party, its prominent publicist, ideologist and most active functionary: he created and inspected local organizations, founded all-party printing houses and organized transport of literature, reformatted the Central Committee, and held in his hands all the threads of the party guides. In 1902, Gershuni created and led the organization of intense terror: the militant organization of the Socialist Revolutionary Party; recruited terrorists, developed plans and directly led the assassination attempts, painfully perceived by the authorities and constituting the glory of the Socialist Revolutionary Party. He is the only one among the leaders of the Socialist Revolutionary Party who possessed the clearly expressed abilities of an ideologist, publicist, speaker and organizer. The author believes that the life path of the «tiger of revolution», an outstanding personality in general terms, reflected the tendency for revolutionary organizations to emerge in Russia in the late XIX and early XX century with their explicitly expressed aspirations for extreme violent methods up to terrorism.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):17-25
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«Let's think, think, brothers»: popular religiosity before and after the 1917 revolution (on the example of the Middle Volga Region)
Kobozeva Z.M., Protasova A.V.
Abstract

In the article, the authors attempted to consider the urgent problem of the evolution of relationship between the government and the church at the everyday level of the «people's faith» without a chronological divide in the form of events of the 1917 revolution. «Folk faith» is a kind of «apocrypha», generated by the daily adaptation of various religious teachings by the «congregation», with their level of education and cultural development. The «congregation» within the boundaries of this work refers to the representatives of the simple social classes in the pre-revolutionary period, bourgeois and peasants, and ordinary residents of the Samara region in the Soviet period, that is, the so-called «little man». This «little man» in such a multinational region as the Middle Volga region, was largely embraced, despite the russification and Christianization (Orthodox), by confessional and national traditions. In the late XIX – early XX century, before the 1917 revolution, «religious persecution» in relation to religious dissent manifested itself in such practices of church and secular power as exhortation procedures, seizures of literature, objects of worship, in the rigorism of verbal culture, when offensive connotations were used in clerical work against Old Believers and sectarians. After the 1917 revolution, the period when the construction of ideology was only taking place is of particular interest. And, despite the ideological atheism of the new Soviet regime, despite the struggle against the church and religion, the 1920-ies were a period of some tolerance towards sectarians. This period continued until the 1930-ies, when the Soviet government already clearly led anti-religious and anti-sectarian policies. The study of the popular religiosity of the representatives of the Middle Volga during the period of social upheaval is necessary for the further improvement of religious-state relations and the formation of the spiritual consciousness of citizens, which confirms the scientific relevance of this topic. The purpose of this article is to examine the evolution of the relationship between the government and the church at the everyday level of the «people's faith» without a chronological divide in the form of events of the 1917 revolution. The results of the work done prove that everyday life, from the perspective of consideration, as is customary in ethnographic methods, «from the inside», shows that the picture of the human world cannot change due to a change in the political system instantly. A person can adapt to the new «rules of the game», but what we call the «people's faith» is much deeper, this is how a person behaves alone with himself.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):26-30
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«Housing problem» on virgin soil: touches of everyday life
Kuznetsova O.V.
Abstract

The purpose of the article is to analyze the problem of housing construction for working state farms during the development of virgin and fallow lands (50-ies – 60-ies of the XX century) using virgin state farms of the Orenburg (Chkalovsk) region as an example. To achieve this goal, the author posed the following tasks were set: to investigate the volume and quality of housing under construction on the virgin lands, to assess its sanitary condition, to characterize the internal situation of housing as an element of everyday life of primary lands; analyze the measures taken by the state. The relevance of the chosen topic is determined by the low knowledge of this problem in modern historiography and the lack of an integrated approach to it. A wide range of archival materials of a regional and national level, periodicals, and sources of personal origin are used as a research source. The presented material identifies the causes of the acute shortage of housing in the virgin lands; the analysis of compliance with norms and indicators of per capita demand and the actual provision of housing for each newcomer in the amount of square meters of living space, as well as the volume of housing development in the dynamics of the first decade of development of virgin lands. Based on the analysis of the statements of young people – virgin lands, a map of priorities is compiled, prompting them to decide to move and develop these lands; issues of technical and sanitary condition of housing for new settlers are considered; a characteristic of the housing situation on the virgin lands is given, the possibilities of primary virgin lands and landmarks for the interior decoration of houses, apartments and rooms, as well as their arrangement, are determined; the main ways to solve the analyzed problem in virgin state farms are identified, such as lending for individual construction, provision of prefabricated switchboard houses, housing construction by unqualified primary lands. Conclusions are drawn about the lack of housing in the virgin lands, both quantitatively and qualitatively; about unsanitary condition in the first few years of development of virgin lands; lack of furniture and household items; a direct relationship between the quality of housing, its readiness for the arrival of new settlers and the turnover of personnel in virgin state farms. Most of the measures taken yielded results only in the mid-1960-ies.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):31-37
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The book as a «place of memory»: on the methods of preservation of cultural and historical heritage (based on the materials of the Republic of Mordovia)
Bikeykin E.N., Guseva T.M., Kursheva G.A., Pershin S.V.
Abstract

The article focuses on the study of possibilities of implementing the concept of historical memory, which has been widely used in recent scientific and practical activities. The following tasks contributed to the realization of the intended goal: analysis of historiographical situation that contributed to the formation of a new scientific direction; study of the method of publishing sources; consideration of the prospect of using collections of documents and materials in the practice of memorialization. The research is based on the concept of historical memory, which is reflected in the works of A. Bergson, M. Halbwachs, Ya. Assman, P. Riker, P. Nor, and others. When writing the article, the achievements of domestic researchers Zh. Toshchenko, L. Repin, and L. Mazur were actively used. Methods of source studies, comparative, critical, conceptual and problem analysis of texts contributed to a comprehensive disclosure of the topic. The relevance of the article is connected with a few aspects: 1) one of the perspective concepts used by scientists in the study of the problem of preserving historical and cultural heritage is the concept of «place of memory»; 2) defining the formation of cultural and historical code as the main task of historical memory, the authors of the article suggested that collections of documents and materials to a much greater extent than many other phenomena of material and spiritual culture can be identified in the modern humanitarian space as significant «places of memory». Such symbolic constructs are particularly relevant for localities and regions of Russia, where a significant part of archaeological and architectural monuments has been destroyed or is at the last stage of destruction. The material of the study was unique eyewitness accounts of historical events included in the «Set of documents on the history and culture of Mordovia». The analysis of experience of Mordovian scientists, who identified and published a significant body of historical sources in the shortest possible time, showed their wide thematic and chronological range. Thematically, military-patriotic publications that chronologically relate to the first half of the XIX and the first half of the XX century predominate. Presenting modern publications of sources as an established form of translation and actualization of cultural meanings, a way of preserving historical and cultural heritage, the authors suggested that purposeful activities to expand such «places of memory» (such as collections of documents and materials) should be expanded and deepened. Its promising areas are the key problems of regional history – national policy of the 1920-ies and 1930-ies, collectivization, industrialization, and so on.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):38-46
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Politics of memory: historical symbols and commemorative practices in the system of socio-political selfregulation of the region (Siberia of the XX – early XXI centuries)
Krasilnikova E.I., Valdman I.A.
Abstract

The purpose of this article is to generalize the dynamics of developing politics of memory, which was reflected in the processes of socio-political self-regulation of the Siberian region during the XX – in the early XXI centuries.
The study solves the problem of identifying the basic institutionalized forms and methods of using historical symbols within the framework of public commemorative practices and typical historical narratives, being established in Siberia in the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries. The tasks also include identifying the stages of history of diverse manifestations of politics of memory in the memorial culture of Siberia in this period. The relevance of this article is due to the need of studying the meaning and methods of using historical symbols and commemorations within the framework of the politics of memory in order to form a critical, scientifically based position in relation to it. The study was implemented within the framework of the Memory Studies problem field and relies on interdisciplinary, sociocultural and socio-constructivist approaches. Comparative, diachronic, and systemic genetic methods there were used. For the first time the authors of the project intend to consider the politics of memory in relation to Siberia as a system that has gradually been formed and transformed depending on various conditions and factors. The scientific significance of the project is that the politics of memory implemented in the region by means of historical symbols and commemorative practices will be studied as a complex sociocultural phenomenon of regulating social consciousness of the regional society. As a result of the project implementation, the dynamics of using historical symbols and commemorations by various actors of regional politics in the sphere of building relations with central authorities and internal regional socio-political self-regulation processes.
The authors define the stages of history of diverse manifestations of the memory policy in the memorial culture of Siberia. The Siberian macro-region, in spite of certain ethnocultural features in the areas where local peoples are densely populated, has emerged as one of the most Russian-oriented in its culture and dominant socio-political identity. And the basis of this result was the aggregate symbolic self-regulation of the Siberian society, which includes the dialectically complementary national and regional levels of memory policy.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):47-54
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Epistolary heritage as a source for studying the problems of transformation of collective memory
Naumov S.S.
Abstract

The purpose of the article is to identify and analyze historical stories that were updated in the space of collective memory of residents of large Siberian cities (Omsk and Novosibirsk) in the conditions of democratic transformations in the country and society in 1985–2000; to achieve this goal, the author set the following tasks: to establish the factors of evolution of collective memory that arose during the period under review; to identify new features of translation of memory about the past; to reveal the stages and content of reflection of residents of large cities of Western Siberia on the theme of the historical past, taking into account the transformations that took place in the sphere of collective memory. The problems of studying the collective memory of modern Russian society, the politics of memory, and the factors of manipulation of historical consciousness have caused acute scientific and journalistic discussions for several years. An informative (due to its mass character) source for studying the transformations of collective memory is the letters of the citizens of the country as a response to various published materials related to the history of the country. The relevance of this topic is justified by the need to understand the processes that led to the formation of the views of residents of post-Soviet Russia about the past. The scientific novelty lies in the analysis of previously unclaimed archival sources that illustrate the process of evolution of the views of «ordinary» people on Russian history and, directly, the history of Siberia. The research was carried out within the framework of the problem field memory studies, which is characterized by the development of new interdisciplinary methods and approaches in the study of specific features of collective memory, as well as practices of historical policy; traditional retrospective and genetic methods of historical research were also used. Based on the reference to Omsk and Novosibirsk materials, we conclude that the stories on the theme of collective memory that were updated in the years of perestroika and the post-perestroika period are similar. First of all, these are the events of the revolution and Civil War in Russia, the events of the period of the 1920-ies–1930-ies, the Great Patriotic war, but, at the same time, uncharacteristic for collective ideas about the past «before 1985», an appeal to pre-revolutionary history, as well as a high degree of emphasis on the problems of modernity in their «binding» to historical facts. Transformations of ideas about the past in the 1985–1990-ies are characterized as global, which served as an impetus to the awakening of civil activity in society. The stages of strengthening and weakening of people's interest in historical subjects are determined depending on various political and socio-economic factors.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):55-64
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Historiography of the Samara Zemstvo in the context of Russian and foreign zemstvo historiography
Turganova O.V., Matveev M.N.
Abstract

The purpose of this study was a historiographic analysis of scientific works on the history of zemstvos of the Middle Volga region, which contained assessments of the organization and activities of zemstvos of the provinces of the Middle Volga region, which, along with city councils, performed the functions of local governments in the second half of the XIX and early XX centuries. The focus is on regional studies. To reveal this topic, the authors set the following tasks: 1) to distinguish periods of historiography; 2) to find out the reasons for the insufficient attention of historians to the Zemstvo in Russian and Soviet historiography; 3) to show the most studied topics and problems raised in the research of Soviet and post-Soviet, as well as foreign historians in the field of Russian local government (including Samara); 4) to characterize the approaches of modern historiography of the Samara zemstvo; 5) to determine the objectives of future research. When studying the conceptual representations of scientists, the methods of historiographic analysis were used, including comparative-historical, chronological, and also the method of periodization. In the historiography of the problem, two periods are distinguished: Soviet and modern. Historiographic facts were used as a source base: the works of Soviet, Russian and foreign historians – monographs, scientific articles, scientific reviews and critical reviews, which contain valuable information about the ideas of scientists on Zemstvos, depending on the socio-political situation in the country and the degree of development of the topic under study. The authors found that until the 60-ies of the XX century the history of zemstvos did not cause much interest, and assessments of their activities were in line with the Marxist-Leninist ideology; 1990–2000-ies – the most active and fruitful period of research on the history of the zemstvo. In the 10 of the XXI century enthusiasm for this problem began to decline. After 2010, against the background of the process of integrating local self-government in the state «vertical of power» that is gaining momentum in Russia and reducing its political significance, the development of history of local self-government and the zemstvo direction in research have lost their popularity, although there are still unaffected aspects and the need to create generalized works has remained, so as a problem of the place of the self-government system in Russia – the past, the present and the future – has been and remains relevant for our country. The authors also attempted to identify a new vector of problems on the history of the Zemstvo movement in the Russian Empire.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):65-76
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Sociocultural approach as methodological foundation to the content of professional training of future translators (interpreters)
Korneeva N.A.
Abstract

In the article the author views the problem of the content of professional training of future translators (interpreters) based on a sociocultural approach, defines the directions of sociocultural approach: familiarization of future translators (interpreters) with material and spiritual values; with the cultural interaction of the individual, society and nature; with the style and the way of life. The principles of sociocultural approach that contribute to social competence: the principle of «dialogue of cultures», which is a method of simultaneous learning of a foreign language and culture of different peoples in the correct relationship with their own language and culture; the principle of multiculturalism, which consists in preserving and increasing the diversity of cultural norms, values, rules of behavior, foundations and types of interaction in educational systems; the principle of conformity to culture, based on the fact that language education must include not only scientific knowledge but also cultural and social experience, and cultural areas of the target language; the principle of interdisciplinary integration is a mastering of foreign language in direct unity with the events, history and culture of the country of the target language, in conjunction with the unit of cultural and humanitarian disciplines are singled out and systematized; the author proves that the study of languages and translation based on a sociocultural approach contributes to the formation of students 'worldview, as well as their understanding of history of human development, their native country, awareness of themselves as a representative of national values, communicative culture. The article highlights the translators’ (interpreters’) responsibility for professional activities.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):77-82
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Formation of the components of engineering expertise of generation Z students
Faritov A.T.
Abstract

The article is devoted to the study of the features of generation Z of secondary school age and their influence on the formation of engineering competence. The necessity of introducing classes for the formation of engineering competence from the 5th grade is justified. The importance of the problem is due to the lack of case studies on the impact of age and psychological characteristics of generation Z on the process of forming engineering competence in extracurricular activities of students in grades 5–9. The analysis of thematic scientific literature has shown that in most cases the work is limited to the study of local aspects of the declared topic. Therefore, the main goal was to study the age peculiarities of pupils of generation Z in the formation of engineering competence (within the framework of extracurricular activities of pupils of 5–9 classes). Methodological base of the research is represented by a set of general scientific methods (description, comparison, generalization and system analysis) and a private scientific method – descriptive content analysis. Scientific novelty defines a set of qualities that are inherent to representatives of generation Z in middle school age and have a direct impact on the development of design and research skills of students in extracurricular activities. The practical and theoretical significance of the obtained results lies in the possibility of using them as a basis for drawing up methodological programs of students, writing fundamental compilation and original scientific papers, as well as creating a new classification of characteristics of representatives of the «new generation» in the educational process. The main conclusions: work on the formation of engineering competence and each of its components separately must begin at secondary school age; for a deeper and better development of the components of engineering competence, you should refer to the resources of extracurricular activities; generation Z needs a special approach to the formation of engineering competence in view of its inherent interests, needs and psychological and age characteristics.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):83-88
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Аdvantages and disadvantages of digitalization of liberal education
Lapteva I.W., Pakhmutova E.D.
Abstract

The relevance of the problem of digitalization of liberal education is caused, on the one hand – by the reduction of classroom classes in the humanities (History, Cultural studies, Foreign language, etc.) in higher school and the demand for autonomous students’ training; оn the other hand – there are advantages of digitalization in the global world, which can enrich and diversify traditional education. The article authors consider that this process has problem areas too. Research objectives are: to consider the means and properties of information educational technologies; to analyze the theoretical works about educational digitalization; to determine advantages and disadvantages of the digital technologies use in the learning process. The main research method is the analysis and synthesis of theoretical research, the presentation of provisions about the functional and motivational aspects of digital technologies; about the need for their use in the educational process at the University. The authors propose to study the historical heritage through information and communication technologies, to focus on notable phenomena of world history, to follow the students’ self-reflection, internal motivation for self-improvement of modern generation, the maximum realization of its potential and high-tech achievements. The empirical material was a long-term experience of teaching the humanities using information and communication technologies at Ogarev Mordovia State University and on postgraduate studies at Research Institute by the Government of the Republic of Mordovia. This article differs from the other researches by the universality of the scientific approach, by the conclusions novelty and schematic visualization of scientific results. The authors clearly presented the advantages of digital technologies, which include many different tools for autonomous learning and simplify the holding of the classes. Thus, it is advisable to use the digital technologies in the educational process.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):89-94
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Methodological approaches in the formation of the model of informational and analytical competence of pharmaceutical specialists in the system of professional development
Kiseleva A.A.
Abstract

n the article, the author presents a model for the formation of information and analytical competence of pharmaceutical specialists in the process of professional development, due to the need to develop the ability to conduct competent consultations of drugstore visitors to dispense over-the-counter drugs, as required by the restructuring of drugstores. During the analysis of scientific literature, the author identifies the structural components of informational and analytical competence. She analyzes the definitions of the essence of information and analytical competence, presents the developed author’s concept «information and analytical competence of a pharmaceutical specialist», gives its structure, which includes cognitive, need-motivational, reflective and operational-activity components, the combination of which allows a pharmaceutical specialist function efficiently in a professional space. The demand for informational and analytical competence is determined by the specifics of the activities of a pharmaceutical specialist. According to the Federal Educational Standard, this specialist carries out pharmaceutical, organizational, managerial and research activities in the course of daily professional consultations of visitors to pharmacy institutions. A specialist in the pharmaceutical profile should be able to analyze and prioritize, make decisions and take responsibility for them, have communication skills to collect information in the communication process, based on the required actions, skills and knowledge. The author describes methodological approaches to the development of a model for the formation of informational and analytical competence (cognitive, activity-based, competency-based, reflective, and functional-role). For the effective implementation of this model for the formation of informational and analytical competence, the author tests the method of blended learning.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):95-100
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Grammar component in the structure of students’ language education
Khramtcova A.B.
Abstract

In the article the author views the peculiarities of formation of sociocultural literacy that seems to be knowledge of national and cultural characteristics of the country of the studied language, the culture of speech behavior. Its structure contains value, cognitive, activity and subjective-personal aspects. Studies have proven that the presence of social literacy contributes to the actual self-realization of a person. However, until today in the scientific community there is no exact definition of the concept of "literacy". Today, the quality of literacy has changed in connection with the development of society and the needs of the individual; it should contribute to its inclusion in the cultural life of the country for its progress and its self-development. Sociocultural literacy is a matter of the general education of a person who is not only able to solve normative problems in a quality manner, but also those that are dictated by global social processes, integration into the world community. In the article the author defines literacy as preparedness for development, and competence – as a level of culture. Thus, she proves the necessity of relying on cultural and competency-based approaches to the formation of students' sociocultural competence, which will be facilitated by the synthesis of the activity and personality components of readiness for a certain behavior during communication with representatives of other cultures.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):101-105
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Some features of the use of parceling in Internet communication
Polidovets N.I.
Abstract

The subject of the research in the article is the peculiarities of using the parceling method in modern Internet communication. Based on the analysis of language material extracted from the Internet resources of Russian forums, an attempt is made to analyze the regularity and frequency of the use of the parceling method. The relevance of the study lies in the absence of special literature on this topic in the context of Internet linguistics. At the stage of preparation for the study, it was determined that the authors mainly studied the phenomenon of parceling on the basis of the material of fiction and journalism, mainly in newspapers and magazines. During the study, the following goals were set: to allocate the necessary amount of language material for the study of the phenomenon of parceling in Internet linguistics; based on the analysis of special literature, to isolate the main functions of parceling that are characteristic of Internet linguistics; to classify the phenomenon of parceling in Internet linguistics by structure, to make a detailed description of each category. The article uses the works of such linguists engaged in the study of parcelling as N.S. Valgina, Y.V. Vannikov, E.A. Ivanchikova, N.V. Inozemtseva, T.N. Kolokoltseva, A.P. Skovorodnikov, and others. Russian-language personality has used more than 500 language units extracted from federal and regional websites to draw conclusions about the relative frequency of using parceling and different structures as part of parceling, about the main functions of parceling in Internet communication, as well as about changes in Russian punctuation related, among other things, to the dictated features of using parceling in Internet communication of the XXI century and active processes occurring in modern Russian.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):106-111
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Etiquette traditions of the webinars for teachers / learners of English
Tanchuk A.S.
Abstract

The verbal and nonverbal markers of etiquette traditions in the webinars for modern English language learners are described and systematized with regard to their linguocultural aspects. One of the stimuli for this research is the growing interest in learning the English language through Internet technologies, especially through webinars, which are currently one of the most popular ways of learning by the Internet strategies. Another impetus for this study is the importance of using the correct speech behavior formulae within the English-speaking communicative environment. These speech formulae are a must for the effective communication of both native members of the English culture and representatives of other cultures. The present research project is aimed at systematizing verbal and non-verbal trends in the sphere of communication based on the webinars scripts intended for learners of English. The research materials embrace the webinars presented by famous British scholars in teaching foreign languages. These scripts are taken from the websites and portals such as British Council, Cambridge English, Macmillan education, Education First, etc. that are extremely popular among methods providing teachers of English from all over the world. The data obtained and studied in terms of discourse analysis are evidently showing that the key trend in learning English today focuses on the methods providing the formation of effective conversational skills through various authentic communicative situations. These webinars are traditionally focusing upon conversational techniques, speaking/spoken English vocabulary, fluency of speaking etc. The webinars’ scripts are considered in terms of basic characteristics describing the moderator’s way of communication with the audience. The article is aimed at studying modern trends in the English educational discourse through webinar etiquette traditions which demand a thorough knowledge of cultural background and a good command of conversational English.

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):112-118
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Semantic transformations of maritime historicisms in modern English
Fedotova A.E.
Abstract

The article is dedicated to the study of English maritime historicisms in the modern English language. The author conducts research of English maritime historicisms aiming to prove that, firstly, they are actively used in modern English, secondly they changed their meanings and thirdly, their functions are not limited to the nominative one. Moreover, the author singles out numerous transformations that affect the meaning of maritime historicisms. The methods used by the author include: descriptive, comparative, systematizing methods and method of contextual analysis. The choice of maritime vocabulary as the material for analysis accounts for by two factors: 1) maritime affairs have always been closely associated with human activities of the British, hence, the English maritime vocabulary includes a large number of historicisms that were used to denote objects and events not existing now; 2) a considerable amount of written records where historicisms are used are still available, and on their basis maritime dictionaries which include historical terms have been compiled. The factual materials comprise numerous marine dictionaries, news columns, literary works, articles and encyclopedias. Conclusions reached by the author are as follows: English maritime historicisms form part of active vocabulary in the English language; four ways how they can change their meaning have been singled out and; apart from nominative function they perform expressive and evaluative functions as well. Theoretical and practical significance of the article consists not only in contributing to the knowledge about English maritime historicisms but also in tracing the association between Maritime History and its reflection in the English language. Moreover, the article can provide the basis for future research in discourse studies (e.g. studying the functional characteristics of historicisms in professional and non-professional communication) and terminological studies, translation of historicisms etc.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):119-124
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Explicity and implicity in the context of the category of evaluativeness (based on British sports discourse)
Panteeva K.V.
Abstract

The article deals, firstly, with the phenomena of explicitness and implicitness with regard to the category of evaluativeness, secondly, with the theoretical distinction between «explicit evaluation» and «direct evaluation», «implicit evaluation» and «indirect evaluation». The problem of this distinction is relevant as these terms are often confused and used interchangeably. The research is based on commentaries made by British sports commentators during international figure skating competitions broadcast on British Eurosport Channel in 2005–2019. The research included two stages: 1) analysis of principal features of explicitness and implicitness based on examples of explicit and implicit evaluation in sports commentaries; 2) comparison of various types of evaluation – explicit, implicit, direct, indirect – for the purpose of eliminating any terminological ambiguity. According to the research, the notion of explicitness is characterized by clearly marked content and a high degree of meaning specificity. Besides, the meaning of an explicit statement can be deduced from the words composing the statement. The main feature of implicitness, on the contrary, is the occurrence of hidden, implied meanings. Thus, explicit evaluation is a type of evaluation in which evaluative meanings have formal expression and can be easily interpreted by the recipient of the text, whereas implicit evaluation is a type of evaluation meaning which may be comprehended with the help of the context and background information. When contrasting categories of implicitness and indirectness, it was shown that implicitness alongside with explicitness is an important feature of the language. Terms «direct» and «indirect», on the other hand, can be used as a characteristic of ways of transferring meanings. Therefore, explicit evaluation and direct evaluation are not the same terms and indirect evaluation is not always implicit. As a result, three groups of evaluation were formed: 1) explicit direct evaluation; 2) explicit indirect evaluation;3) implicit evaluation which is always expressed indirectly.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):125-133
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The Problem of Denotation of Old High German ‘nesso’ in Charms
Trufanova N.A.
Abstract

This article focuses on the etymology of Old High German ‘nesso’ – a controversial lexeme used in the prominent for German studies charms („Pro nessia” and „Contra vermes“) as well as in a range of less examined literary works. She gives the background of this issue, systematizes the existing interpretations of this lexeme, analyzes their validity regarding modern data and supplements them with her own conclusions illustrating the mechanism of denotation. The methodological framework has been developed under the influence of Russian and foreign linguists, culturologists and specialists in charm literature; the variety of analyzed sources is reflected in references. The relevance of the study is justified by the growing interest in folklore genres among scholars and insufficient research work conducted on this matter in domestic science. Using methods of etymological analysis, she suggests new ways to interpret the lexeme: OHG ‘nesso’ < PGmc *net- ‘bind, coil’; PGmc *nata-, *nataz > OHG naz, nezzen, Germ. netzen ‘moisten’; OHG ‘nesso’ as a contraction of OHG nichessa ‘water ghost’, ‘water monster’. The research is based not only on the relevant sources of the German tradition, many of which appear in such a study for the first time, but also on some parallels found in Slavic folklore texts. Thus, from the author’s point of view, the disputed nature of ‘nesso’ could be revealed through examination of some particular Slavic charms against fever and whitlow. The author comes to the conclusion that Slavic and German prescientific notions of bacterial infections have a lot in common; the same is also true for the methods of their prevention and cure. The author hopes that the results of her research will help to close the gap in the declared problematics and contribute to the solution of the problem. The drawn conclusions will interest specialists in the field of history of the German language and literature as well as folkloristics and medicine of the Middle Ages.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):134-140
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Expressive means in Margaret Thatcher’s speech
Gadzhieva A.D.
Abstract

Contemporary linguistics and stylistics provide no ambiguous interpretation of the «expressivity» concept and all of its definitions intersect with the concepts of «emotionality», «imagery», «intensity», «expressiveness», etc. Currently, deliberate attention is focused on the study of expressivity issue in both domestic and foreign linguistics, however, despite the rich theoretical material; there are no clear concepts and terms. Many contradictions are found in the very definition of expressivity: a number of scientists associate expressivity with both the functional side of the language and the semantics of words, while others describe it in terms of linguistic stylistics and lexicology. In the context of these problematic issues, the aim of the article was to develop an integrated approach to the conceptual interpretation of «expressivity», «means of expressivity», as well as to provide a clear demarcation between the first of the concepts and the term of «emotionality».

In this article, based on the analysis of literary sources, the following tasks has been implemented: we considered approaches to the interpretation of the «expressivity» concept, after which, during a contextual and stylistic analysis, we identified the key expressive means on the basis of four speeches announced by the famous British politician, Margaret Thatcher, which allowed to identify lexical and syntactic means creating expressiveness in the statements of the mentioned politician. The main research method in this article was a descriptive analysis, as well as a component analysis, which provides for the consideration of connotative interpretation focused on the speech units used by Margaret Thatcher in public.

In the framework of this article, the most memorable speeches of the politician were analyzed in order to understand how she managed to manipulate the audience. In addition, the lexical and syntactic features of Margaret Thatcher’s linguistic image, as one of the most famous politicians, and, no less important, speakers, are revealed. In particular, anaphoras, epiphoras, rhetorical constructions, parentheses, emotionally marked vocabulary, metaphors, comparative figures of speech and elements of citation are highlighted, which allowed the policy-maker to attract the attention of the audience, increase her credibility, discredit opponents, etc.

 

Vestnik of Samara University. History, pedagogics, philology. 2020;26(1):141-147
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