ON THE DISTINCTION BETWEEN THE TERMS “DYSPHEMISM”, «SLANG», «VULGARISM» AND «INVECTIVE»

Abstract

Linguists showed their interest in studying lexemes with negative meaning not so long ago, so there is no developed and unanimously accepted theory on means of negative assessment. Topicality of this study is also connected to the fact that communication over the last decades is marked with the growth of negative information.

The article provides an overview of theoretical literature on the stated problem terms. Applying definitional and etymological analysis, we distinguish the terms «dysphemism», «slang», «vulgarism» and «invective» which are considered to be synonymous or are not fully defined in some studies. The article also highlights the problem of distinction between dysphemism and euphemism, which are traditionally contrasted in terms of utterance. We underline that the context plays the crucial role in their distinction since the same lexical unit can carry both positive and negative connotations in different communication situations.

The theoretical statements of the article are illustrated with examples from the corpus of comments on political news in the Internet newspapers of France and Russia. The pragmatic approach is applied to the analysis of examples (the macro context is taken into account), since it proves to be effective in determining the communicative purpose of utterance and analyzing the evaluative elements.

Our study has shown that dysphemism is a means of negative evaluation in general. Slang and vulgarism can have dysphemistic meaning, while invective is a type of dysphemism with the main idea of expressing aggression.

About the authors

M. G. Cheporukhina

University of Tyumen

Author for correspondence.
Email: morenov@ssau.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1711-0786

3-year postgraduate student, assistant lecturer of the Department of French Philology

References

  1. Allan, Burridge 1991 – Allan K., Burridge K. Euphemism and Dysphemism: Language Used as Shield and Weapon. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991, 263 p. [in English].
  2. Allan, Burridge 2006 – Allan K., Burridge K. Forbidden Words. Taboo and the Censoring of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511617881 [in English].
  3. Casas Gómez 2009 – Casas Gómez М. Towards a new approach to the linguistic definition of euphemism. Language Sciences, 2009, 31.6, pp. 725–739. doi: 10.1016/j.langsci.2009.05.001 [in English].
  4. Fisher 1995 – Fisher S. Métamorphoses: Le cri, l'interpellation, l'injure. Faits de Langue. 1995, 6, pp. 143–152. doi: 10.3406/flang.1995.1015 [in French].
  5. François-Geiger 1991 – François-Geiger D. Panorama des argots contemporains. Langue française, 1991, no. 90, Parlures argotiques, pp. 5–9. doi: 10.3406/lfr.1991.6190 [in French].
  6. Green 1998 – Green J. The Cassell Dictionary of Slang. L.: Cassell, 1998, 1316 p. [in English].
  7. Greenough, Kittredge 1961 – Greenough J.B., Kittredge G.L. Words and their ways in English. New York: Macmillan, 1961, 431 p. Available at: https://archive.org/details/wordsandtheirwa06kittgoog [in English].
  8. Lagorgette 2002 – Lagorgette D. Les axiologiques négatifs sont-ils une classe lexicale? In: Représentations du Sens Linguistique, 2002, pp. 121–136 [in French].
  9. Lagorgette 2012 – Lagorgette D. Insulte, injure et diffamation: de la linguistique au code pénal? Argumentation et Analyse du Discours [En ligne], 2012, no. 8. Available at: https://journals.openedition.org/aad/1312 [in French].
  10. Larochelle 2007 – Larochelle M.-H. Invectives et violences verbales dans le discours littéraire. Presses Université Laval, 2007, 234 p. [in French].
  11. Partridge 1933 – Partridge E. Slang To-Day and Yesterday. L.: Routledge and Kegan Paul LTD, 1933. Available at: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.58766 [in English].
  12. Perea 2011 – Perea F. Les gros mots, paradoxes entre subversion et intégration. La lettre de l'enfance et de l'adolescence, 2011, 83–84 (1), pp. 53–60. doi: 10.3917/lett.083.0053 [in French].
  13. Schmitt 1995 – Schmitt J.-L. Les Images de l’Invective. In: L’Invective au Moyen Age: France, Espagne, Italie: actes du colloque «L’invective au Moyen Age», Paris, 4–6 février 1993. Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle, 1995, 272 p. [in French].
  14. Sourdot 1991 – Sourdot M. Argot, jargon, jargot. Langue française, no. 90, Parlures argotiques, pp. 13–27. doi: 10.3406/lfr.1991.6192 [in French].
  15. Amosova 1951 – Amosova N.N. K probleme yazykovykh stilei v angliiskom yazyke [On the Problem of Language Styles in English Language]. Vestnik Leningradskogo un-ta [Vestnik of Leningrad University], 1951, no. 5, pp. 32–44 [in Russian].
  16. Arnold 1986 – Arnold I.V. Leksikologiya sovremennogo angliiskogo yazyka: ucheb. dlya in-tov i fak. inostr. yaz. [Lexicology of Modern English Language: textbook for institutes and Foreign Language Faculties]. M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1986, 295 p. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/22052961/%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%BB%D1%8C%D0%B4_%D0%98.%D0%92._%D0%9B%D0%B5%D0%BA%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D1%8F_%D1%81%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B5%D0%BC%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE_%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%B3%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%B9%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%BE_%D1%8F%D0%B7%D1%8B%D0%BA%D0%B0 [in Russian].
  17. Bojko 2005 – Bojko T.V. Evfemiya i disfemiya v gazetnom tekste: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Euphemisms and dysphemisms in newspaper texts: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. SPb., 2005, 206 p. Available at: http://cheloveknauka.com/v/176793/d?#?page=1 [in Russian].
  18. Bushueva 2005 – Bushueva T.S. Pragmaticheskii aspekt evfemizmov i disfemizmov v sovremennom angliiskom yazyke: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Pragmatic Aspect of Euphemisms and Dysphemisms in Modern English: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. Smolensk, 2005, 176 p. Available at: https://www.dissercat.com/content/pragmaticheskii-aspekt-evfemizmov-i-disfemizmov-v-sovremennom-angliiskom-yazyke [in Russian].
  19. Gaevaya, Nikitina 2017 – Gaevaya A.A., Nikitina A.Kh. Izuchenie disfemii v aspekte prepodavaniya russkogo yazyka kak inostrannogo [Studying dysphemy in the aspect of teaching Russian as a foreign language]. Pedagogika. Voprosy teorii i praktiki [Pedagogy. Issues of theory and practice], no. 3 (7), pp. 13–18. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=30054471 [in Russian].
  20. Galperin 1958 – Galperin I.R. Ocherki po stilistike angliiskogo yazyka [Essays on English stylistics]. M.: Izdatel'stvo literatury na inostrannykh yazykakh, 1958, 462 p. Available at: https://studfile.net/preview/5080829 [in Russian].
  21. Dmitrienko 2007 – Dmitrienko G.V. Verbal'naya invektiva v angloyazychnom leksicheskom substandarte: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Verbal Invective in English Substandard: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. Pyatigorsk, 2007, 166 p. Available at: https://www.dissercat.com/content/verbalnaya-invektiva-v-angloyazychnom-leksicheskom-substandarte [in Russian].
  22. Egoshina 2013 – Egoshina N.B. Sleng v SMI: leksikograficheskii aspekt: na materiale odnoyazychnykh i dvuyazychnykh slovarei: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Slang in mass media: lexicographical aspect: evidence from explanatory and bilingual dictionaries: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. Yaroslavl: Yaroslavskii gos. ped. un-t im. K.D. Ushinskogo, 2013, 244 p. Available at: https://www.dissercat.com/content/sleng-v-smi-leksikograficheskii-aspekt [in Russian].
  23. Zhel'vis 2001 – Zhel’vis V.I. Pole brani: skvernoslovie kak sotsial'naya problema v yazykakh i kul'turakh mira [Field of bad language: ribaldry as a social problem in languages and cultures of the world]. M.: Ladomir, 2001, 349 p. Available at: http://padaread.com/?book=19822&pg=1 [in Russian].
  24. Casares 1958 – Casares J. Vvedenie v sovremennuyu leksikografiyu. Kh. Kasares; perevod s ispanskogo N.D. Arutyunovoi, redaktsiya, predislovie i primechaniya G.V. Stepanova [Introduction to the Modern Lexicology. Translation from Spanish
  25. by N.D. Arutyunova, editing, preface and notes by G.V. Stepanov]. M.: Izdatel'stvo inostrannoi literatury, 1958, 355 p. [in Russian].
  26. Kateneva 2013 – Kateneva I.G. Namerennaya disfemizatsiya tekstov kak kharakteristika kommunikativnoi politiki sovremennoi oppozitsionnoi pressy [Intended Concentration of Dysphemisms in Texts of Oppositional Newspapers]. Vestnik ChelGU [CSU Bulletin], 2013, no. 21 (312), pp. 269–276. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/14689047 (accessed 04.05.2019) [in Russian].
  27. Katsev 1991 – Katsev A.M. Evfemizmy i prostorechiya. Semanticheskii aspekt [Euphemisms and popular speech. Semantical aspect]. In: Aktual'nye problemy semasiologii [Topical issues of semasiology]. L.: Nauka, 1991, 237 p. [in Russian].
  28. Kvaskova 2016 – Kvaskova L.V. Disfemizatsiya rechi kak kommunikativnaya taktika v diskurse [Dysphemisation of the speech as communicative tactics in discourse]. Prepodavatel' XXI vek [Prepodavatel XXI vek], 2016, no. 2, pp. 352–357. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/disfemizatsiya-rechi-kak-kommunikativnaya-taktika-v-diskurse (accessed 07.06.2019) [in Russian].
  29. Kiseleva 2015 – Kiseleva S.A. Funktsionirovanie evfemizmov v sovremennom angliiskom voenno-politicheskom diskurse: strukturno-semanticheskii i pragmaticheskii aspekty: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Functioning of euphemisms in modern English military and political discourse: structural semantic and pragmatic aspects: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. M., 2015, 240 p. Available at: https://www.dissercat.com/content/funktsionirovanie-evfemizmov-v-sovremennom-angliiskom-voenno-politicheskom-diskurse-struktur [in Russian].
  30. Korovushkin 2005 – Korovushkin V.P. Osnovy kontrastivnoi sotsiolektologii: dis. … d-ra. filol. nauk [Foundations of contrastive sociolectology: Doctoral of Philological Sciences thesis]. Pyatigorsk, 2005, 646 p. Available at: http://cheloveknauka.com/v/184421/d?#?page=1 [in Russian].
  31. Lomteva 2005 – Lomteva T.A. Nestandartnaya leksika v kommunikativno-pragmaticheskom aspekte: na materiale yazyka romanov S. Kinga: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Substandard vocabulary in communicative and pragmatic aspect: on the material of language of S. King’s novels: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. Stavropol, 2005, 210 p. Available at: http://cheloveknauka.com/v/130670/d?#?page=1 [in Russian].
  32. Makovskii 1982 – Makovskii M.M. Angliiskie sotsial'nye dialekty (ontologiya, struktura, etimologiya) [English social dialects (ontology, structure, etimology]. M.: Vysshaya shkola, 1982, 135 p. Available at: https://ru.b-ok.cc/book/1102457/084e76 [in Russian].
  33. Mosievich 2009 – Mosievich L. Disfemizmy i yazykovaya kartina mira [Dysphemisms and World Image]. Naukovі zapiski [Kіrovograds'kogo derzhavnogo pedagogіchnogo unіversitetu іmenі Volodimira Vinnichenka]. Ser.: Fіlologіchnі nauki, 2009, Vol. 81 (3), pp. 358–362. Available at: http://www.irbis-nbuv.gov.ua/cgi-bin/irbis_nbuv/cgiirbis_64.exe?I21DBN=LINK&P21DBN=UJRN&Z21ID=&S21REF=10&S21CNR=20&S21STN=1&S21FMT=ASP_meta&C21COM=S&2_S21P03=FILA=&2_S21STR=Nzs_2009_81(3)__88 (accessed 11.05.2019) [in Russian].
  34. Nelyubin 2003 – Nelyubin L.L. Tolkovyi perevodovedcheskii slovar' [Explanatory Dictionary on Translation]. M.: Flinta: Nauka, 2003, 320 p. Available at: http://lab314.brsu.by/kmp-lite/kmp2/JOB/LingvoDSL/nelyubin_l_l_tolkovyy_perevodovedcheskiy_slovar.pdf [in Russian].
  35. Ponomareva, Shabalina 2013 – Ponomareva O.B., Shabalina N.Yu. Substandartnaya semanticheskaya derivatsiya: kognitivno-kommunikativnyi aspekt: uchebnoe posobie [Substandard semantic derivation: cognitive communicative aspect: textbook]. Tyumen: Izdatel'stvo Tyumenskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, 278 p. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=20058453 [in Russian].
  36. Rezanova 2008 – Rezanova A.V. Disfemiya v angliiskom yazyke: semanticheskie mekhanizmy i pragmaticheskie funktsii: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Dysphemia in English: semantic mechanisms and pragmatic functions: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. SPb., 2008, 179 p. Available at: https://www.dissercat.com/content/disfemiya-v-angliiskom-yazyke-semanticheskie-mekhanizmy-i-pragmaticheskie-funktsii [in Russian].
  37. Sinitsyna 2013 – Sinitsyna N.V. Somaticheskie nominatsii v substandartnoi frazeologii angliiskogo i russkogo yazykov: dis. … kand. filol. nauk [Somatic nominations in substandard phraseology in English and Russian: Candidate’s of Philological Sciences thesis]. Pyatigorsk: Pyatigor. gos. lingvist. un-t, 2013, 205 p. Available at: http://cheloveknauka.com/v/376517/d?#?page=1 [in Russian].
  38. Khomyakov 1980 – Khomyakov V.A. Nestandartnaya leksika v strukture angliiskogo yazyka natsional'nogo perioda: avtoref. dis. … d-ra filol. nauk [Substandard vocabulary in the structure of English language of the national period: author’s abstract of Doctoral of Philological Sciences thesis]. L., 1980, 39 p. [in Russian].
  39. Shveitser 1983 – Shveitser A.D. Sotsial'naya differentsiatsiya angliiskogo yazyka v SShA [Social differentiation of English in the USA]. M.: Nauka, 1983, 216 p. Available at: https://www.freepapers.ru/3/socialnaya-differenciaciya-anglijskogo-yazyka-v/193691.1163880.list1.html [in Russian].
  40. Sheigal 2000 – Sheigal E.I. Semiotika politicheskogo diskursa: dis. … d-ra filol. nauk [Semiotics of Political Discourse: Doctoral of Philological Sciences thesis]. Volgograd, 2000, 431 p. Available at: https://www.dissercat.com/content/semiotika-politicheskogo-diskursa [in Russian].
  41. Shishova 2014 – Shishova E.V. Opredelenie termina disfemizm v lingvisticheskikh terminologicheskikh slovaryakh, spravochnikakh i entsiklopediyakh [The interpretation of dysphemism according to linguistic terminological dictionaries, reference books, and encyclopedias]. Filologiya i kul'tura [Philology and Culture], 2014, no. 2 (36), pp. 73–79. Available at: https://elibrary.ru/item.asp?id=21948856 [in Russian].

Statistics

Views

Abstract: 750

PDF (Russian): 213

Dimensions

PlumX

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2019 Cheporukhina M.G.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

This website uses cookies

You consent to our cookies if you continue to use our website.

About Cookies