RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM AS A CHANNEL FOR ACCULTURATION AND MODERNIZATION OF CONSCIOUSNESS OF NOMADIC KAZAKHS OF THE XVIII AND BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURIES

Abstract

In this article, we will try, first of all, to understand how the education system becomes one of the main channels of modernization and acculturation reforms. How does education affect the process of emancipation of a person, the formation of the intelligentsia, the awakening of national identity and the emergence of various, including radical political doctrines in social and political thought, some of which directly led to a change in the political power of state. Secondly, we will try to analyze this problem by actively involving the works of Kazakhstani, Russians and foreign English-speaking researchers on the introduction of the education system among non-Russian peoples of the Russian Empire and then the USSR.
In this article, we will try to analyze the process of penetration of the idea of education into the Kazakh society, as well as the formation of Russian and then Soviet educational policy towards the Kazakhs. As a result, a critical mass of representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia was formed, all thoughts and aspirations of which began to revolve around the idea of their own national development and the realization of an independent national project, which became possible on the wave of Russian revolutions of the early 20th century.
The main method of research is a historiographic analysis of the works of leading specialists in the field under study. The method of comparative studies became the main one in analyzing the approaches that exist in historiography. In addition, methods of retrospective and prospective analysis were actively used too.
Sources of study were various types of documents. Among them, there are state legislative acts of various levels, as well as individual works of representatives of the Kazakh intelligentsia. In addition, the analysis involved the works of Western scholars who develop this problem in a comparatively aspect.
The main conclusion boils down to the assertion that education, opening the prospects for development, maximally contributes to the emancipation of man, becomes the main means of its liberation and struggle for political purposes, actively stimulating the processes of formation of national self-consciousness and nation building.

About the authors

S. I. Kovalskaya

L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University

Author for correspondence.
Email: morenov@ssau.ru
Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor of the Department of History of Kazakhstan

S. V. Lyubichankovsky

Orenburg State Pedagogical University

Email: morenov@ssau.ru
Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of the History of Russia

References

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Copyright (c) 2018 Kovalskaya S.I., Lyubichankovsky S.V.

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