Vol 12, No 4 (2021)

Full Issue

ECONOMICS

Analysis of the effectiveness of digitalization of business in Russia and the experience of Germany

Anisimova V.Y., Sokolov N.S.

Abstract

This article describes the development of the Russian Federation in a rapidly gaining pace of the digital transformation race. The article discloses the concept of digitalization and the elements included in it. An analysis of both weak and strong indicators of the country, necessary for the rapid restructuring of the business into a digital environment and the full competitiveness of enterprises, was carried out. For Russia, this is an important strategic task, since it is an opportunity to narrow the gap with the leaders of developed countries and equal them, or even lag behind them. When comparing the received information, factors are identified that inhibit the introduction of digital innovations, possible causes of their occurrence, and ways to eliminate them are proposed. Also, together with the progressive consequences of digitalization, the article deals with possible dangers arising from the transition to another industry. A detailed analysis of such potential threats and the adoption of timely measures will help make the transition more reliable and stable. It is noted that the digital business development strategy does not have one optimal option, it should be considered exclusively as a dynamic system with integrated development. Possible directions for the development of digitalization processes in Russia are given in the work.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):7-14
pages 7-14 views

Development of innovation – territorial clusters as a form of organization of the regional economy

Veselovsky M.Y., Pogodina T.V., Chueva I.I.

Abstract

The paper identifies new trends in financial and economic support of innovation processes and the role of innovation-territorial clusters functioning in conditions of increased factors of macroeconomic instability and financial risks. The necessity of activation of innovative and technological development of the country for achievement of strategic goals of development of national economy is emphasized. The article outlines the trends characteristic of the post-industrial mode of production and shows the features of their financing. An assessment of the dynamic efficiency of innovation-territorial clusters in various sectors of the economy has been carried out. New mechanisms for stimulating innovation and technological development at the micro and macro levels, as well as methods of state support for innovation and territorial clusters are proposed. The methodological basis of the research includes the theories of strategic management, management technologization and digitalization of business models. Comparative analysis was used as the leading method in the article, which allowed us to investigate the criteria and methods of segmentation of the largest corporations in Russia. Logical and historical research methods allowed to reveal the evolution of key criteria for segmentation of industrial companies. Using coefficient and statistical analysis, the dynamics of indicators characterizing the level of domestic industry was analyzed. Using a comparative analysis, the strengths and weaknesses of industrial companies in Russia in comparison with other countries in innovation and technological development are highlighted as the most important criterion for attracting customers to purchase and use industrial goods. The use of the structural method made it possible to identify methods and tools for segmentation of consumers in the conditions of transformation of the Russian economy in the market of industrial goods.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):15-26
pages 15-26 views

Tools for improvement of the ecological environment for innovative entrepreneurship of the medical device industry

Балановская А.В., Balanovskaya A.V., Gerasimov K.B.

Abstract

The article discusses the main problems of the development of the domestic market for medical equipment and medical devices. The main reasons for the insufficiently high share of the presence of domestic manufacturers and developers are analyzed. The purpose of the study is to identify factors and participants in the ecological environment that affect the development of the Russian market of medical equipment and determine their contribution to ensuring the development of the industry. The research is carried out on the basis of empirical methods based on the study of various sources of information. The theoretical methods used were analysis, synthesis, deduction and induction. The research was carried out using statistical methods. Building a modern and effective eco-environment for innovative technological entrepreneurship is the most important task that needs to be solved for the development of the domestic market for medical equipment. To this end, it is necessary to introduce a number of analysis tools, the use of which will allow, depending on the stage of maturity of the company and the stage of development of a new medical device, to determine how target requests for services, services and opportunities provided by the ecosystem are changing, as well as to obtain information on the status of technology and possible risks for all participants in the process. The authors came to the conclusion that, based on the presence of an extensive network of various members of the innovative ecological environment and the low activity of technological entrepreneurs in the industry, there is no effective management system that ensures the constant application of the competencies of the members of the ecological environment at the necessary time. A management analysis tool was proposed, the use of which allows to provide consistent support for the complete innovation cycle of technology, consisting of the stages of knowledge generation, transformation of knowledge into experimental development and technology commercialization.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):27-36
pages 27-36 views

Review of empirical researches on the factors of economic performance of Russian universities

Sandler D.G., Gladyrev D.A.

Abstract

In the Russian system of higher education and science between two large federal programs «Project 5-100» and «PRIORITY 2030» the issue of developing entrepreneurial activity of universities becomes more essential. At the same time, most of the existing studies of the factors of universities' own incomes and related characteristics were made on foreign data, and their results are not always applicable to Russian reality due to the historical and structural features of the higher education system and science. In 2019–2021, the authors of this article contributed to this gap by conducting a number of studies on the data of the Monitoring of the effectiveness of the activities of educational institutions of higher education. This article is aimed at combining the results of both these studies and other empirical studies of the factors of the economic performance of Russian universities. The main result of the article is a summary table that highlights these factors, associated indicators and the direction of influence. The article can be useful for managers in the field of higher education and researchers of university economics.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):37-49
pages 37-49 views

Innovative component of the socio-economic system of the region

Smolkin V.P.

Abstract

The article discusses innovative activities carried out and projected in the socio-economic system of the region. The author discloses the content of the term «region», as well as the features and principles of separation of structural objects of the region. An author's clarification of the definition of the region is proposed. The article analyzes various points of view of the region as a set of subsystems of controls. In the enlarged version, the region is presented as three subsystems: environmental, economic and social. The author examines and analyses the term "regional economy". The possible equality of the concepts of «region» and «subject of the Russian Federation» is being considered. The rationale for the concept of the region as a socio-economic system is given. A model of the socio-economic system of the region is proposed. The mission of the region is justified as a social subsystem aimed at solving social problems and improving the standard of living of the population of the region, which has a decisive impact on development, without the participation of which any transformation of any direction is impossible. A clarification of the interpretation of the concept – socio-economic systems is proposed. In the article, innovative directions for the development of regions as socio-economic systems, emphasizing the intensification of strategic management of human resources (capital) in order to increase the standard of living of its population due to the improvement of the social sphere and, first of all, health care and education. The author proposes specific measures in the territorial labor market to stabilize the tense situation at the expense of the region's own funds.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):50-56
pages 50-56 views

Space tourism: achievements and innovations

Zueva O.V.

Abstract

The article explores theoretical issues related to the need to promote new directions in the development of space. The author notes that, on the world market, Russia occupies a leading position in the sale of space products; these are propulsion systems and sets of technological equipment that can form the basis for creating new conditions for existence in outer space. The author notes that at the present stage of the "race" for space, the largest countries of the world devote great importance to the search for new ways of developing the space industry and space tourism can become a tool for solving many problems of domestic cosmonautics. The widespread use of space tourism products will become an incentive for the development and support of both cosmonautics and various sectors of the national economy as a whole, provide a qualitatively new level of international cooperation tasks, and strengthen their positions in the world community. The article examines the theoretical issues of the possibility of organizing space tourism. The necessity of its development as a completely new phenomenon in the life of society is shown. The paper briefly reflects the current state of the development of the world's outer space and shows new ways of using it in such a direction as space tourism. The assessment of the necessary conditions for its development is given. According to the author, the increasing demand for space services enables countries to create conditions for terrestrial (virtual) or near-Earth (orbital, suborbital and lunar) travel. The capabilities of the leading space powers available today show the realism of these trips. The article reflects that the increasing demand for space entertainment (flying in zero gravity, flying on L-29 and L-39 fighter jets, space tours to Baikonur and the Vostochny cosmodrome) is pushing for the creation of special economic zones with the development of road transport infrastructure, space industry and comic tourism. And this in turn gives an impetus to the creation of additional jobs. As a result of the study, the conclusion is formulated that those countries that enter the global space market of tourist services will be able to attract not only public, but also private investments in the development of outer space. Space is a new horizon for all mankind and this sphere will steadily develop, and at the same time have a tremendous impact on the economic level of the country.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):57-65
pages 57-65 views

Development of innovative activity of enterprises of automotive industry in order to increase resource efficiency

Podbornova E.S.

Abstract

Today, one of the key conditions for the competitiveness of any state is an active policy in the development of innovative technologies and knowledge-intensive industries. The assessment of the prospects for the development of technological solutions should be carried out taking into account the current state of innovative activity of enterprises based on the analysis of trends in the development of the automotive market. Also, it is necessary to take into account external and internal factors that can influence it.       The relevance of the work also lies in the fact that in the scientific literature there is no single theoretical and methodological approach to the problem of reducing the technological lag of the Russian automotive industry from world positions through innovative technologies in conditions of low resource availability. Experts note that the lag is mainly due to the global shortage of semiconductors, a sharp rise in prices for materials, primarily metal, as well as the moral and physical obsolescence of the technologies used. The situation is also aggravated by the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and its consequences on related industries, including the automotive components industry. On that basis, in order to maintain competitive positions and increase the efficiency of the domestic automotive industry, it is necessary to study the specifics and problems of development and innovation activity of the industry under study.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):66-71
pages 66-71 views

Theoretical approaches to the study of the category «intellectual capital» of high-tech enterprises

Tyukavkin N.M., Stepanov E.V.

Abstract

During the formation of the post-industrial Industry 4.0, intellectual capital plays a significant role in the activities of industrial enterprises, which is the basis of innovation activity, the main factor in the growth of the company's value. The study presents the issues of studying the concept, essence and structure of intellectual capital of high-tech enterprises. The approaches of foreign and domestic scientists are considered. Estimates of the intellectual capital of the enterprise are given. It is determined that intellectual property, especially intangible assets, are especially important for high-tech enterprises. Additions to the structures of intellectual capital and its elements are presented. According to the authors, intellectual capital is understood as the degree of development of a person's knowledge abilities, his ability to bring income to the owner. Intellectual capital is formed when investing in its creation: education, acquisition of required competencies, professional training. The assessment of intellectual capital represents an assessment of the consumer value of the subject.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):72-79
pages 72-79 views

Management aspects of ensuring competitiveness of innovative enterprises

Yuklasova A.V.

Abstract

The global knowledge-based economy is driven by innovation which is the leading force of competitiveness, growth, and profitability. The rapid changes in the requirements of consumer needs, as well as those in the technological field are drivers for disruptive and incremental innovations, which can be considered as new or improved products, processes, technologies, and managerial decisions (or a combination thereof), that have been introduced on the market or brought into use by the firm. The paper aims to systematize the key elements and factors that influence the competitiveness of innovation-active enterprises. According to international statistical guidelines and recommendations, an innovation-active firm can be defined as a company that is engaged in one or more activities to develop or implement new or improved products or business processes for an intended use. Based on a literature review, the definition of the competitiveness of an innovation-active firm as an economic category is proposed, as well as the main dimensions and prerequisites for effective management of competitive capacity of innovation-active enterprises are highlighted, that should be primarily taken into account from a management decision-making viewpoint to embed the innovation development principles into business practice in order to improve the organizational performance and strengthen the competitiveness of a company in a fast-changing business environment. As a result of the study, through an integrated approach a descriptive overview of the key components of an innovation-active firm’s competitive capacity is presented, namely the innovation, the organizational, the managerial, the information, and the marketing capacity.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):80-87
pages 80-87 views

MANAGEMENT

Subjects of management of innovative business processes in the organization

Vasilenko V.S.

Abstract

The management of innovative business processes of an organization consists in their implementation with the required parameters of quality and efficiency, as well as the development of the necessary level of professional, intellectual and creative competencies required for the implementation of innovative activities in the subjects of management. The management system of innovative business processes in the organization, when interacting with the external environment, performs its functionality through the formation of business processes of support: personnel, organizational, informational, financial, etc. The subjects of innovation management are classified on various grounds, differing in the scope of activities, goals, motivation, interests, the direction of the functioning of the organization and its development, by structure, composition and other types. The main place in the management system is occupied by the provision of innovative activities by highly qualified employees, the development of their creative, professional, and intellectual level. The category of the subject of management of innovative business processes is interpreted in a broad sense, representing their impact on the object of management. This is determined both by the presence of many different types and types of innovations, the presence of various phases in their structure, and by the peculiarities of the activity itself, which has an inter-organizational interdisciplinary character. The interaction of the management system with the internal and external environment of the organization is carried out by creating a management decision support system in the production of innovative activities, in which the implementation of the management functionality of the innovation process takes place. The methodological organization of BPM is aimed at developing the competitiveness of the organization and improving relationships with consumers, suppliers and staff. The main emphasis in the BPM concept is on cross-functional, corporate-wide processes that bring an increase in the value of products (services) to customers (external and internal).     The effectiveness of the management of innovative business processes is represented by indicators of effectiveness of innovative activities. The paper notes that the organization of innovation activity is significantly influenced by the degree of human capital development. The human capital management model of the organization is created on the basis of a systematic approach to business process management, which reflects the relationship between the innovative potential of the organization and human capital, with the development of which the parameters of management efficiency may change. The main factors determining the effectiveness of innovative business entities, first of all, include the characteristics of the person himself, his potential qualities, life beliefs. Analyzing the types of staff life beliefs, it is possible to determine the scope of employees' activities, where they can maximize their opportunities and realize their own potential. The main figures in the innovation business are the entrepreneur and the staff involved in the implementation of innovations. Therefore, in order to understand the category of business process management, it is necessary to understand what a person acting in an innovative business environment is.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):88-97
pages 88-97 views

Efficiency management of innovative business processes

Zhityaeva O.I.

Abstract

The article examines the issues of management and evaluation of business processes of organizations. The author notes that in order to improve the efficiency of business functioning, the new content of the processes carried out in the organization – the concept of VRM – the concept of business process management to improve the quality and efficiency of the processes being implemented comes to the fore. The article examines the theoretical issues of process activity management, presents the content of process transformation. According to the author, the activity of managing the efficiency of business processes, it is necessary to start selecting processes to be improved by including their monitoring, assuming that business processes have already been identified, correctly presented, displayed. The beginning of the analysis of effectiveness of business processes, according to the author, should be carried out by evaluating the effectiveness of business processes, that is, to assess whether they meet the expectations presented. And you also need to evaluate whether there are optional business processes or unnecessary actions. The paper reflects that when conducting this assessment, it is necessary to understand whether the business process contains the necessary conditions to achieve the desired results. This assessment is carried out from the point of view of all the conditions and elements of the process in the final product (service). For this assessment, it is optimal to use benchmarking and lean manufacturing technologies. And the purpose of the evaluation is to improve those business processes that need to be performed, and not those that are currently being performed. The author presents the advantages of implementing a process assessment, suggests implementation directions and roadmaps, and identifies trends in evaluating the effectiveness of organizations. It is noted that after evaluating the effectiveness and defining business processes, describing them and studying them from the inside, as well as from the customer's point of view, it is necessary to develop approaches to performance management and their indicators. The main point, in this case, is that the VRM will evolve, following the evolution of business, as well as business processes. This will help to avoid mistakes when regulatory, correct scenarios for the development of processes are first evaluated, and after that, business development leads away from the originally planned activities. The article reflects that in order to determine what exactly needs to be evaluated, it is necessary to take into account the following provisions: assessment of the movements of raw materials and components for the implementation of the process, as well as the results of the business process; the qualifications of the organization's personnel making certain decisions; the role of information systems and software; levels of evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization; the degree of competence of the team of business process analysts. The author presents the principles of assessing the economic effect of business processes: the evaluation of the effectiveness of an innovative business process should be carried out according to the conditions of use of products, taking into account the results obtained and available; calculations for assessing economic efficiency should be carried out throughout the cycle of formation and implementation of an innovative business project for a certain period; the evaluation indicators are given to the indicators of the calculation year, to the standards and other indicators used in the calculations, taking into account the unevenness of results and costs that are obtained in different time periods; the use of investment efficiency and resource cost standards in the calculations, as well as the use of estimated costs, prices and tariffs reflecting the efficiency and quality of products for the consumer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of business processes creates new forms of innovation and management activities, represents the best positions in the development of the national economy, new competitive advantages, increasing the number of innovations, filling them with professional competencies.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):98-108
pages 98-108 views

Analysis of the factors determining the application of category management in the assortment policy of the company

Ilyenkova K.M., Neganova V. .

Abstract

In the conditions of dynamic changes in markets, globalization and the increasing struggle for customer loyalty in the implementation of the company's assortment policy, it becomes insufficient to use existing tools within the framework of traditional marketing. The introduction of category management, which combines the tools of both traditional marketing and relationship marketing, becomes necessary and minimally sufficient. The paper identifies and reveals four groups of main factors determining the application of this approach: external limiting, internal limiting, external stimulating and internal stimulating. The conducted research substantiates the need to use new tools in the implementation of the company's assortment policy aimed at meeting the needs of customers, in particular category management.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):109-118
pages 109-118 views

Gamification: pros, cons of its use in the project activities

Semyonova O.V.

Abstract

Today, the organization's project activities are recognizable methodology of the latest innovative activity. In the process of introducing such projects there are a number of tasks, the purpose of which is to obtain the required result. Of everything that is important for the effective achievement of the project goal, we single out following: Determine the boundaries of the project. The desire to expand or change the boundaries arises almost always, and here it is important to prescribe the appropriate changes in a timely manner, if any;. The main task of the project manager is communication; Terms of project execution; Motivation of staff for project tasks. Design tasks are always skill work with multitasking. It is important to avoid formal solutions here, since it is motivation that is one of the most effective tools for getting the result. It can be both tangible and intangible. Thus, many modern business enterprises have interesting initiatives (tasks) that are separated from daily operational tasks and formalized as a project. Any project activity begins with planning, where it is prescribed: goal, timing, responsible (project team), desired result. So, a project is a set of tasks aimed at the main goal, execution which you want to control. That is, on the one hand, the advantages increased attention of management to the execution of tasks, on the other hand – understanding tangible and intangible value of the expected result of this project. In this article, we will consider all the pros and cons of intangible motivation in project activities, in this case we will consider specifically using an example gamification.  Do they use it, if they use it, then what are the pros and cons can be, how to make it productive, but at the same time not «overplay», and in general how to help her get the result.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):119-125
pages 119-125 views

Methodological approaches to the development of industrial infrastructure projects

Kurakova O.A.

Abstract

The article discusses methodological approaches to the implementation of industrial investment projects. To date, the recovery of the economy as a whole is perceived as an increase in gross domestic product (GDP). Industrial projects play a huge role in the country's investment policy. Industrial production is a key link in the economies of countries and is the second largest source of global GDP after the services sector. Modern industry is a key component of the economy of any country, and Russia is no exception. The structure and quality of the products produced by industry plays an important role for the economic climate of the state, thereby determining the economic power and independence of the country. In modern conditions, the problem of the development of domestic industrial production is becoming more and more urgent. The Russian industry needs to modernize and strengthen its positions both in the domestic and foreign markets. However, the problem of the revival and development of industrial production is primarily related to the need to attract large investments in long-term high-risk industrial projects. Large investment projects, such as the construction of highways or industrial facilities, are characterized by a huge period of their implementation and very complex procedures for approving project documentation. Accordingly, such projects are the most risky for banks and private investors. And the higher the risks, the higher the cost of financing. The solution of the above problem requires the creation of mechanisms that facilitate the attraction of investments in large industrial projects. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that today there is a constant development and improvement of the methodology for managing investment and construction projects, but in practice this development does not always lead to an increase in the effectiveness of the projects themselves. In the case of investments in energy, chemical and other industries, as well as in infrastructure development, characterized by huge investments, the choice of the financing method is key to making a decision on the implementation of such a project. It follows from the above that improving the efficiency of implementation and management of industrial investment and construction projects is an important task both for the investment climate of the country and for the development of the industrial sector. The essential result of this research is the formation of methodological approaches to improving the reliability, from the point of view of investors, of large industrial investment projects.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):126-135
pages 126-135 views

HUMANE RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Conditions for innovative development of the organization as socio-economic system in ensuring human capital management

Smolkin V.P., Svetunkov M.G.

Abstract

The article justifies that the implementation of relevant reforms in modern Russia should be carried out taking into account world experience, with the interaction of economic and social efficiency. World practice shows a preference for social goals, taking into account the customs and national characteristics of the country. The authors note the basic organizational, economic and social conditions of innovative development of social and economic system of the organization, which should be reflected in the agreed programs of innovative development of human resources management (capital). The article explores the issues of human capital management of the organization as a socio-economic system. The authors substantiated the natural dependence of solving problems in the social sphere on the political and economic state of the country. Sound social policy is important as a catalyst for economic development and the well-being of society. Social expenditure in human resources (capital) is inevitably needed. As a result, they turn to increased productivity and quality of work, and increased consumption of products. The article clarifies the concepts of «economic system», «socio-economic system» and gives a brief description and definitions of the concepts of «system», «structure2. The most important properties of socio-economic systems with the author's addition of separate properties of such systems are given. To systematize a huge variety of systems, its classification is given, supplemented by author's features. The article justifies that the main condition for the existence of any socio-economic system of the organization is the activity of the person himself. The main factor in the successful development of the socio-economic system of the organization is an innovative approach to activity. This approach represents the organization's response, as a socio-economic system, to changes in the internal and external environment taking place in market relations.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):136-144
pages 136-144 views

Digitalized continuous learning system in the company: organizational aspect

Solovova N.V., Gorbunova Y.N., Kalmykova O.Y.

Abstract

Information and technical support of the personnel management system is gaining more and more distribution, informatization is carried out in virtually all modern companies without exception. As a rule, in most companies, they primarily automate the functions of personnel records management and administration. These areas are associated with the storage and processing of information about employees: personal files, work books, employment contracts, data on the movement of personnel, payroll. Information technologies can be used not only for processing large amounts of data, but also for their analysis.Recently, the use of artificial intelligence in recruiting has become widespread; such technologies significantly reduce the time spent on the selection of candidates. Artificial intelligence is used at the initial stage of recruiting – calling candidates, which allows the HR manager not to miss a promising specialist from the stream of vacancies. At the same time, there is a trend towards automating more complex HR functions such as employee assessment, development and training. In this study, the sought-after directions for improving the information and technical support of the personnel management service were highlighted: artificial intelligence, continuous learning, big data. The hierarchy analysis method based on expert judgment determined the criteria that guided the group of experts when choosing the most promising direction with growth potential. According to the results of the analysis, the largest number of points was received by the direction «continuous learning in the format of electronic distance learning» – 56.1 %. Further, a technological scheme for information and technical support of the personnel management service was developed. The process of introducing distance learning in the company is described, the main items of expenses, the departments responsible for the implementation of this system, the preparation of the necessary regulatory documentation, the choice of software, the costs of administration of the system are given.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):145-156
pages 145-156 views

MATHEMATICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ECONOMICS

Analysis of interconnection of spatial characteristics and country risk for Eurasian countries

Bogatyrev V.D., Rostova E.P.

Abstract

The article examines the relationship between country risk and the geographic location of states. Country risk is presented as a resultant indicator calculated on the basis of a number of risk factors: political, economic, credit, currency, etc. Each factor has an estimated value for the state, reflecting the level of a certain risk in the long and short term. The values of risk factors are assessed by experts and calculated by analytical agencies according to individual methods. The relationship between spatial characteristics and the statistic under study is usually investigated using spatial correlation tools. The article offers an alternative to this method. The novelty of the proposed methodology consists in taking into account the distance between states as one of the analysis factors, which allows the most complete consideration of the geographical distance of the analyzed countries. The influence of geographical location on the value of country risk is analyzed in the article using a correlation analysis tool for individual risk factors and for the resulting indicator of country risk. The analysis was carried out for the countries of Eurasia, divided into European and Asian states. The calculations used risk factors and their values used by the analytical agency Credendo. The calculation results showed that there is no relationship between the remoteness of the states of the Eurasian continent from the Russian Federation and the deviation of the values of risk factors from the value of the risk of the Russian Federation. At the same time, data from Asian countries do not allow forming a trend and identifying a pattern, forming a “cloud” on the diagram. European states are grouped in an area of low country risk, but also show no influence of remoteness from the Russian Federation.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):157-164
pages 157-164 views

Issues of identification of the distribution of sampled data with the limitation of the lower boundary of scattering of the observed values

Duplyakin V.M.

Abstract

Statistical analysis of empirical data is a commonly used approach for research in various fields of science and in applications, including studies of economic processes and critical conditions, but at the same time, there are numerous questions regarding the selection of theoretical distribution laws in general populations that include the sample data being studied. This selection is required for reliable forecasting of risks and reliability because these tasks require the prediction of rather small probabilities or, conversely, the probabilities that approach 1.0. For studying issues with numerical identification of empirical data, a software tool has been developed; it includes drawing of pseudo-random samples from Weibull distribution with a given lower threshold of dispersion, followed by the determination of whether the samples belong to the original distribution or to the normal distribution. A numerical experiment has been carried out with a wide range of variation in the parameters of the considered distributions and using the Pearson's goodness-of-fit test for identification of the sample data’s distribution. An analysis of the results of the numerical modeling, which incorporated significant variation of the volume of the samples and their parameters, showed the high probability of false identification of the normal distribution of the sample data, whereas, in fact, the samples were drawn from Weibull distribution with a fixed lower threshold of dispersion.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):165-172
pages 165-172 views

Modeling the dynamics of product output by a manufacturing enterprise due to the digital transformation of its workforce

Ilyina E.A.

Abstract

The published article proposes a mathematical model of the dynamics of product output by a manufacturing enterprise, whose labor resources are being replaced by digital technologies and robotics. The development of the model is based on the application of a dynamic two-factor production function of the enterprise. The structure of this function includes a variable from zero to one dimensionless logistic function of digitalization and two Cobb-Douglas functions. The first Cobb-Douglas function refers to the period of operation of the enterprise before the start of digitalization, and it uses capital and human labor resources as production factors. The second function of Cobb-Douglas corresponds to the period of operation of the enterprise, in which its digitalization is fully completed and capital is used as production factors, and human labor resources are completely replaced by digital technologies and robotics. Models of the dynamic development of an enterprise, the production of which is restoring its capacity due to the introduction of its own internal investments, are presented in the form of systems of differential equations for production factors. Stationary solutions of these systems of equations correspond to the equilibrium states of the operation of enterprises and represent the limiting values of the factors of production. It is shown that the models of output by an enterprise corresponding to the absence of digital transformation and complete digitalization of production represent the lower and upper boundaries of all possible options for displacing human labor resources.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):173-181
pages 173-181 views

On the theory of optimization of transaction costs of multifactor manufacturing enterprises

Ilyina E.A., Saraev L.A.

Abstract

The published article proposes mathematical models for calculating the optimal profit of multifactorial manufacturing enterprises that incur both production (transformational) and certain non-production (transactional) costs, the sources of which may be forced costs of searching for economic information, measuring the parameters of various goods, negotiating and the conclusion of contracts, for the development of specifications and the protection of property rights, for the opportunistic behavior of employees and managers of the enterprise, etc. A numerical analysis of the presented models for calculating the optimal profit of multifactor enterprises that bear transaction costs shows the unattainability of the maximum possible profit values, since in practice the enterprise management maximizes not the profit itself, but its utility, expressed in the form of the corresponding transaction function.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):182-194
pages 182-194 views

Modeling and risk assessment of the minimum portfolio copying the stock index

Nikishov V.N., Levchenko V.O.

Abstract

The article proposes a methodology for forming a minimum portfolio that copies a stock index. The methodology is based on the use of the index for assessing monopoly in the market (Herfindahl index) as an objective function and the formation of a number of restrictions that ensure the profitability and risk of the formed portfolio at the level of the stock index. Due to the stochastic dynamics of securities, the assessment of the degree of similarity in terms of profitability and risk was made using simulation methods under the assumption that the change in the value of each asset satisfies the logarithmic Brownian motion, taking into account the covariance between assets. The method of forming the minimum portfolio copying the stock index turns out to be especially useful due to the periodic revision of the composition of the market index, as it allows to reduce the number of costly operations to reformat the investment portfolio. The minimum portfolio formed on the basis of the proposed methodology – on the one hand, provides practically no less profitability and no greater risk than the index portfolio, on the other hand, it provides a significant reduction in the cost of performing very costly operations associated with reformatting the portfolio.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):195-211
pages 195-211 views

Determination of the regression functions of learning curves in series cars production

Pavlov O.V.

Abstract

The article deals with the problem of determining the regression functions of learning curves in the serial production of cars. According to the statistical data of the automobile manufacturing enterprise, four functions of a given type are constructed: Wright's power-law, Stanford-B power-law, exponential and logistic. The parameters of the learning curve functions are determined numerically using a nonlinear least squares method. The estimation of the significance and reliability of the regression models is carried out. It was found that the regression functions of learning curves in series cars production are best approximated by the Stanford-B power function.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):212-222
pages 212-222 views

The intensity of the flow of the logistics chain

Chertykovtsev V.K.

Abstract

Assessing the intensity of logistics flows is one of the most important functions of consumption management in socio-economic systems. Today, there is a need for rapid and flexible response of production, trade and transport systems to changing consumer priorities. Logistics takes over the solution of this complex problem. The intensity of the logistics process includes a wide range of issues from resource extraction, resource processing, storage, distribution and delivery of the finished product to the consumer. The paper considers the issues of modeling the intensity of logistics chain flows. A block diagram of the logistics process is constructed. The concept of logistics flow is given and its mathematical model is constructed. The mathematical model of the logistics flow is based on the correspondence of the logistics and electrical circuits. The parameters of the logistics flow model are determined. The relations between the parameters of the electrical and logistics chains are found. Transients in logistics chains are considered. Mathematical models have been developed to study the intensity of logistics flows using the Mathcad program. The analysis is carried out and conclusions are made. The analysis has shown that under any models of the economic system, a halt in development leads to a sharp decrease in the intensity of the logistics flow. In the conditions of a developed system, the market economy has an advantage in the intensity of the logistics flow compared to the planned economy, but the fluctuating process leads to constant economic crises, which disrupts the sustainable development of the system. The planned model is the most resistant to economic crises, this is confirmed by the development of China in the modern conditions of the pandemic.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(4):223-232
pages 223-232 views

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