TULA HANDICRAFTS IN TERMS OF MODERNIZATION IN THE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

Abstract

The article is devoted to the analysis of the dynamics of the number of artisans, the definition of their representation among the urban population of the Tula province in the second half of the XIX – early XX century. on the basis of statistical and record-keeping sources using quantitative and qualitative data analysis, historical-genetic and historical-system methods. The tendencies of development of provincial craft in the conditions of modernization processes and government policy are shown. The contradictory essence of the shop system, on the one hand supporting the members of the craft corporation and at the same time limiting the process of expansion of the layer of entrepreneurs, is considered. The branching of the spectrum of handicraft specialties and the emergence of new ones in the post-reform period testified to the increase in the household needs of citizens, the production of everyday goods. In the cities of Tula province, the craft was engaged in the first half of the XIX century 1–4 % of citizens, by the beginning of the XX century. – already 7–10 %, during the First World War – more (this situation was due to the fact that the craft was engaged in many citizens to support the family). It is established that more citizens were employed in the craft than in a few industrial enterprises.

The authors concluded that the slow increase in the urban population and with small fluctuations in the increase of artisans while maintaining the guild and craft corporation, competition from industrial enterprises gave a certain stability to the local commodity market. Small-scale handicraft production focused on meeting local needs, the expansion of specializations contributed to the "accumulation" of the urban lifestyle, the development of urbanization.

About the authors

E. V. Simonova

Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University

Author for correspondence.
Email: morenov@ssau.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8350-3057

Doctor of Historical Sciences, professor, professor of the Department of History and Archaeology

N. A. Bilenko

Tula State Lev Tolstoy Pedagogical University

Email: morenov@ssau.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4666-4553

Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor of the Department of history and archaeology

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