PARTICIPATION OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN ZEMSTVO UNION IN THE DELIVERY OF THE HEALTH CARE TO SOLDIERS DURING WORLD WAR I (1914–1916)

Abstract

Assisting the sick and wounded soldiers is one of the pressing problems of our country’s history. During the First World War, it was provided not only by the state, but also by public organizations. The article considers the participation of the All-Russian Zemsky Union in the provision of medical services to soldiers. It is proved that it was the All-Russian Zemsky Union that was the leading public organization coordinating the activity of the local self-government bodies in the sphere of medical support of the Russian army.
Difficulties in studying this topic are due to the state of the source base. During the preparation of the article archival sources, zemstvo periodicals, reports and essays of the activity of public organizations were used. The basis of the source base was unpublished archival materials from the funds of the Russian State Military Historical Archive, Central State Archive of the Samara Region and State Archives of the Ulyanovsk Region.
It is proved that the All-Russian Zemsky Union, created in the summer of 1914, actively joined in solving the main socio-economic tasks to meet the needs of soldiers and officers participating in the First World War. It established relations with regional self-government bodies, as well as with the Russian Red Cross Society. It is shown that the structure of the Union was widely represented both in the center and at the local level. The Russian government, based on legal legislation, gave it a legalized status, and in the general system of state institutions it was not given the last place. The All-Russian Zemstvo Union, endowed with specific powers, began to represent a significant political force. The government, recognizing the sufficient competence of the Zemstvo Union in the matter of rendering assistance to the sick and wounded soldiers, allocated considerable amounts of money to it. In its work there were both successes and shortcomings. But, the latter did not reduce the value of the activities of this public organization in the sphere of organizing the treatment of military ranks. As a result of the interaction of these public organizations, the level and quality of the treatment of the wounded improved noticeably.