ANTHROPOLOGICAL CONCEPT OF LATE F.M. DOSTOEVSKY AND THE NOVEL «THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV» IN THE ESTIMATION OF N.O. LOSSKY (ON THE ISSUE OF THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF BEING)

Abstract


The article is devoted to the problem of anthropological presentation of late F.M. Dostoevsky. The consonance of provisions of theonomous ethics of N.O. Lossky and the Orthodox conception of man in F.M. Dostoyevsky’s novel «The Brothers Karamazov» is traced, the question of ultimate goal of being is posed, the antinomy of the being of man in the striving for the absolute is shown, expressed in that he himself is the carrier of two ethical poles – both evil and good, he can strive for the absolute and at the same time hate it.
For the understanding of the concept and imagery of the novel «The Brothers Karamazov» the conclusions that are made on the basis of this ethical system N.O. Lossky are most important: the creature of such a demonic way in principle can’t exist because even it is created by the God the Creator, thereby his hatred to the God and all that is created must become hatred to itself as a part of the created. In all the created beings, the ultimate completeness of life is the ultimate ideal. The struggle against the Creator and the evil brought into the world as a result of this is only a consequence of pride. The one who enters this path is trapped in contradictions, which lead to disappointments and tragedies. Inevitably, the return to the path of good is even the most important carrier of evil, the philosopher concludes. In Christian ethics such complex of ideas is defined as apokatastasis. Hence follows the conclusion about the impossibility of ultimate accession of absolute evil.
The solution of the human problem not only in the real, but also in the metaphysical plan is determined through the figurative system of the novel. The writer’s conclusions are constructive. On this path the heroes of Dostoevsky achieve certain, albeit different, results. The possibility of victory along this path is confirmed by the example of the Holy men and Saints, to which N.O. Lossky refers.

About the authors

I. A. Almakaeva

MBOU MPL (multi-profile lyceum)

Author for correspondence.
Email: morenov@ssau.ru

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