Vol 12, No 3 (2021)

Full Issue

ECONOMICS

Implementation of the state policy in the field of innovation

Tyukavkin N.M., Matveeva Y.V.

Abstract

In the Strategy of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, the main goal is to ensure the competitiveness and independence of the state by forming an effective system of the most complete application and development of the intellectual potential of the state. The main directions in the work of the Government of the Russian Federation, for the period up to 2024, is the formation of conditions for the entry of the Russian Federation into the top five leading countries in the field of R & D, represented by the priorities of scientific and technological development of the state, determined by this Strategy.These areas are represented by the Program, which is the main mechanism for implementing the Strategy. It is aimed at increasing the socio-economic effect of applying the results of scientific research and intellectual activity, significantly increasing the efficiency of using budget funds and extra-budgetary sources to finance R & D, by switching to the « qualified customer» model. The Strategy also provides for measures to develop the « level of capitalization of the educational potential of the population» to fulfill the tasks of technical modernization of industrial production, development of entrepreneurial structures of all types, attracting talents, social mobility, ensuring the required rates of economic growth, as well as the quality of life of society

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):7-15
pages 7-15 views

Recommendations on the implementation of the spatial potential of small enterprises as an instrument of regional economic policy

Bessonov I.S.

Abstract

The spatial approach to the study of the development of small enterprises is an actual scientific direction. There are gaps in the effective practical implementation of the spatial capabilities of small enterprises, which consist in «fine-tuning»the system of state and municipal development of the small enterprise sector. The purpose of this study is to form practical recommendations to the authorities on the implementation of the spatial potential of small enterprises on the example of the Samara Region. The article examines the set of small enterprises of the Samara Region, taking into account the principle of joint consideration of legal entities and individual entrepreneurs based on information obtained from the publications of Federal State Statistics Service and the Unified Register of Small and Medium-sized Businesses. General scientific methods are used: analysis, logical, synthesis, as well as special methods: content analysis, program-target. Proposals for the development of small enterprises in the multi-level economic space of the region and comments on the adjustment of the institutional framework of the regional economic management system are formed on the example of the Samara Region. The scientific significance of the results obtained is to increase the validity of the regional economic policy pursued by the authorities. The practical significance of the work lies in the possibility of applying the system of strategic planning documents at the regional and sub-regional levels in the development and adjustment of the system. The recommendations made are proposed to be taken into account as additions to the regional system of strategic documents of the Samara Region.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):16-30
pages 16-30 views

Russian economy innovative development scenarios

Vasyaycheva V.A., Sakhabieva G.A., Kovalenko T.D.

Abstract

The unfolding fourth industrial revolution sets global goals for the world community, requiring the implementation of systemic transformations in all spheres of human activity. Preparations for securing Russia's technological leadership began a long time ago. However, the measures being taken are not enough to build an integral innovation ecosystem, which would make it possible to organize at a high level the building up of innovative potential, its effective use and increase the country's competitiveness in a dynamically changing environment. The key problems of the shortage of expected effects include the lack of formation of the competitive market, the low potential of domestic research in the field of improving strategic planning and methodological tools for making managerial decisions, poor management at all levels of the production hierarchy, the low degree of interest of economic entities in innovative transformation and investment in changing organizational and managerial structures. The paper analyzes the scenario conditions that determine the formation of an innovative economy and the improvement of the country's rating at the global level. The main factors that maximally affect the resulting indicators of innovative activity are investigated. Predictive models of innovative development have been constructed depending on the intensity of changes in factors sensitive to variations in world trends. The need for a systemic restructuring of the traditional economic order is argued. Scientific and practical recommendations on increasing innovative activity and improving the digital culture of the subjects of the Russian economy, taking into account the existing opportunities and potential of world leadership, are proposed.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):31-40
pages 31-40 views

Development of innovative processes in integrated industrial structures (IPS)

Goman K.I.

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to analyze the problems of development of innovative processes in integrated industrial structures (IPS). The article considers approaches and methods that activate the development of innovative processes in the IPS. Special attention is paid to the consideration of issues reflecting the economic forms of integration of industrial enterprises: the processes of organizational transformation based on the creation and functioning of new production structures, involving the adaptation of their structural units to the development of innovative activities. Special attention is paid to the formation of the IPS as a promising form of management at the current stage of economic development. The paper analyzes the IPS as a factor of interaction and organization of effective activities of economic entities. The approaches of different authors to the definition of this term are shown. The author comes to the conclusion that the existing industrial environment contributes to the development of innovative activities of enterprises in the industrial sector, its definition is given, the essence and content are revealed. The author identifies and describes the characteristic features of integration processes, the main forms of integration are given, their content is disclosed. The author determines that the management of changes carried out in the development of integration processes is a separate type of innovative activity with its inherent features. Considerable attention is paid to the creation of cluster-network structures representing the development of integration processes in the industrial environment on the basis of network cooperation of participants. The definition of cluster-network integration of industrial sector enterprises has been put into circulation. It is shown that the formation and implementation of the activities of individual enterprises in the cluster gives a positive impetus to the entire innovation system through the mechanisms of networking and participation in technological platforms.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):41-53
pages 41-53 views

Analysis of the main causes of technological oil losses and features of the innovation management process in the oil and gas industry

Manukyan M.M.

Abstract

The article considers the main reasons for the occurrence of technological losses of oil, as well as the state of innovation activity in the oil and gas complex of Russia and abroad. The main idea of modern trends in the oil industry, today, has become energy saving. The preparation and processing of associated petroleum gas is directly related to high energy intensity indicators, since these processes are carried out by creating and maintaining a continuous technology. The interest of manufacturers in reducing the costs (resource and financial) for production without compromising the quality of products leads to innovative growth. The goal is to reduce electricity consumption, so one of the main ideas of the developments is to create new technologies that are aimed at rational use of energy. The largest energy costs are spent on: gas compression, its movement around the production facility, creating positive and negative temperature values in a wide range, as well as maintaining the operation of the equipment at the created temperature regime. In the period of economic globalization, the task of effective development of oil and gas complex is more urgent than ever. An important role in the modern economy is played by the innovative activity of oil and gas processing enterprises, which contributes to improving the quality of services and goods. Lack of resources, depreciation of technical funds, old wells, as well as the slow development of new oil and gas fields leads to a slow development of industry, which necessitates the introduction and active use of innovative technologies. The article also presents methods for evaluating the commercial efficiency of investments, highlights the main principles for evaluating the effectiveness of an investment project in the oil and gas industry.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):54-60
pages 54-60 views

Post-industrial development and the nature of deindustrialization in the world economy and economic security of Russia

Noskov V.A.

Abstract

The article evaluates the world experience of post-industrial development and deindustrialization in the economies of both developed and developing countries. The significance of the crisis of the post-industrial paradigm for the development of the world economy is indicated. The importance of applying this experience in the process of import substitution and the unfolding reindustrialization in Russia. The analysis of the world experience of post-industrial development and deindustrialization of the economy, its macro-regional features is carried out in the context of maintaining and developing Russia's economic security. The author's understanding of the problems and prospects of the development of import substitution and reindustrialization processes in the world is proposed. Import substitution is considered as part of the country's economic development and national security strategy.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):61-69
pages 61-69 views

Modification of long-term volatility trading methods based on a delta-neutral strategy

Plotnikov A.P., Glazkov V.P., Shishlov R.A.

Abstract

Delta-neutral trading strategies for trading volatility allow you to make a profit regardless of the direction of change in the price of the underlying asset. Despite their popularity and high efficiency, they are usually made manually, which makes them less systematic and vulnerable to the negative influence of the human factor (emotions, late actions, erroneous submission of applications, etc.). The article proposes a unified delta- neutral strategy, taking into account several parameters for long-term volatility trading through transactions with underlying assets (futures or stocks) and options on these underlying assets, which creates prerequisites for its automation. The use of the strategy helps to increase the liquidity of investment assets traded on the exchange, increases the receipt of taxes, exchange fees and commissions, which brings great socio-economic benefits. Automation of the strategy significantly simplifies calculations, increases the speed of decision-making and can significantly increase the number of transactions made in the financial markets. In addition, the automatic calculation of the optimal values of the method parameters can make a significant contribution to the theoretical research of the modifications of the volatility trading methods.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):70-79
pages 70-79 views

Issue of crypto currency as a means of achieving scientific and technological progress

Terent'ev V.N., Petrov K.G.

Abstract

The distribution of federal budget funds for 2021-2023 years shows a tendency to reduce the cost of maintaining high-tech innovative research. The problem of attracting funds to innovative activities is becoming one of the main areas of activity. The subject of the study is the system of financing, including through investment mechanisms, research and development activities in the conduct of high-tech research, design developments. The purpose of the study is to develop a methodology for financing research and development activities through the institution of ICO projects. The following methods are used: empirical methods of comparison, description, interpretation; theoretical methods of formal and dialectical logic; private-scientific methods: legal-dogmatic and method of interpretation of legal norms. The analysis of the existing system of financing high-tech research and design development is carried out, and the main problems of the existing system of implementing state space programs are highlighted. The features of the issue of crypto currency through ICO projects for the implementation of scientific research are disclosed. This study proposes a model for the development of economic relations between the private sector involved in the implementation of domestic scientific research and the customer, represented by the Government of the Russian Federation. The presented model of interaction of participants of the domestic market of space technologies is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the development of domestic cosmonautics, conducting research and development activities. The proposed model of issuing crypto currency through ICO projects for the implementation of scientific research will increase the funding of domestic research and development activities. The stabilization of investment processes that contribute to long-term planning of investment returns will allow large financial flows of private investors to be poured into scientific and technical research. As a result, a planned increase in investment activity is expected, which allows launching innovative projects on a federal scale without attracting budget funds.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):80-89
pages 80-89 views

Impact of external shocks, trends and prospects of non-primary non-energy exports of the Samara region

Khmeleva G.A., Abramov D.V., Kurnikova M.V.

Abstract

The development of foreign economic activity and the increase in exports and the share of non-primary non-energy exports are the most important tasks for the development of the regional economy. The research contains a retrospective analysis of trade and economic cooperation in the Samara region and an assessment of changes influenced by significant political, economic and global events and phenomena. It has been shown that significant developments since the beginning of the XX century (the global financial crisis of 2008 and the sharp fall in oil prices in 2009, 2015, the imposition of sanctions in 2014, the COVID-19 crisis) have necessitated and state policy has created the conditions for a consistent shift towards the expansion of non-primary non-energy exports. The evaluation showed that the Samara region’s economy has entered a new stage of increasing the positive contribution of non-primary non-energy exports. The region’s economy has successfully adapted to the impact of economic sanctions, reducing the role of European countries as an export destination and diversifying its export portfolio towards Asia and Africa. The authors have identified fast-growing five-year export countries for which special promotional policies have been proposed. The research has identified certain European countries that, despite the pan-European sanctions policies, are actively recovering exports from the Samara region, as well as European countries where local friendly policies can encourage mutual trade growth. The conclusion was reached that more attention should be paid to the border Kazakhstan, which has recently witnessed a trend towards the cooling of mutual relations at the national level. However, the neighborhood with Kazakhstan makes it impossible to ignore the policy of strengthening friendly relations in order to increase the economic stability and security of the border region of Samara.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):90-101
pages 90-101 views

State and prospects of information and communication technologies in the economy and management of companies

Agafonova V.V.

Abstract

The management of modern companies (enterprises, organizations) is a complex process that includes the selection and implementation of a certain set of management influences in order to solve the strategic tasks of ensuring sustainable financial and socio-economic development. Information and communication technologies, which have reached a new qualitative level in the last decade, greatly expand the possibilities of effective management, since they provide managers, financiers, marketers, production managers with the latest methods of processing and analyzing economic information necessary for making management decisions. The main goal of creating and improving the company's information and communication technology system is to provide information support to all departments of the organization and its management in order to achieve sustainable competitiveness and high efficiency of the company as a whole, taking into account the current factors of domestic and world markets. Based on the foregoing, it can be said that in the modern world information and communication technologies are very important in ensuring the development and maintenance of the economy, as well as for the formation of such a society in which various types of modern systems based on computer technology, networks will be widely used by all segments of the population, information technology, telecommunications.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):102-108
pages 102-108 views

MANAGEMENT

Components of management technologies of the mechanism of sustainable innovative development of the national economy

Bugakova M.S.

Abstract

The article examines the components of management technologies for the mechanism of sustainable innovative development of the national economy. The purpose of the article is to highlight the basis and components of management technologies for the mechanism of sustainable innovative development of the national economy. As part of the management technologies of the mechanism of sustainable innovative development of the national economy, the study of the goals of sustainable innovative development of the national economy is substantiated. The basis for sustainable innovative development of the national economy is an innovative infrastructure, the institutions of which are able to qualitatively perform the function associated with the production and implementation of innovations. Despite the significant achievements of domestic economic science, the problem of defining management technologies for the mechanism of sustainable innovative development is very relevant. The market segment of the innovation infrastructure deserves special attention, since the innovation market in many areas of economic activity is underdeveloped. A characteristic feature of the innovation infrastructure is the lack of a clear management system for the process of innovative development of the national economy. As a result of the study, we proposed our own vision of a promising innovative infrastructure, which will allow us to implement the tasks of innovative development of the national economy. The innovation infrastructure of sustainable innovative development of the national economy should include institutions related to the production and implementation of innovation, and which are an integral part of the innovation process.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):109-115
pages 109-115 views

Features of organization of production and management of airport enterprises

Nemchinov O.A., Ivanov D.Y.

Abstract

Development of a market economy in Russia is accompanied by active development of the transport sector, a huge role in which civil aviation plays.A significant area of the country and its uneven settlement, geographic and climatic diversity, the underdevelopment in some regions of land transport infrastructure cause the value of the use of air transport. Strategic development of modern air transport enterprises takes under non- stationarity external environment. The study analyzes the current state of development of civil aviation, the main functional relationships of the air transport market were determined, the analysis of functioning of Russian airports, which enabled us to identify the factors system, affecting the air transport passenger traffic.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):116-125
pages 116-125 views

Systematization of scientific approaches to development of border cooperation and management practice of their application: innovative aspect

Khmeleva G.A., Pavlov Y.V.

Abstract

The most important factor in ensuring the well-being and prosperity of the region is its potential for integration into national and international production and economic systems, which are additional sources of necessary resources for development. In this sense, the border regions of the countries have a unique resource – the ability to directly enter the foreign market, but they use this resource in different ways. The efficient use of the potential of the border position makes an additional contribution to the territorial capital. It is now recognized that boundaries do not so much hinder communication and the formation of relationships, but also direct them in a positive direction and predetermine. In this regard, the authors set themselves the goal of systematizing and revealing the practical application of scientifically based approaches to the development of cross-border cooperation. The authors came to the conclusion that, from a practical point of view, for the development of cross- border cooperation, it is currently advisable to use the institutional, cluster and spatial approaches, which allows a comprehensive approach to the development of triggering mechanisms for bilateral processes. The need to supplement the existing theoretical and methodological apparatus with the theory of cooperation between competitors (B. Neilbuff, A. Brandenburger) is noted, which will allow to define and systematize the "fine" criteria that govern the subjects of foreign economic activity, to better understand the balance of interests. To this end, it was proposed to monitor the currently used cooperation mechanisms based on the PVP approach of limology, to assess the relevance of existing mechanisms and identify gaps in measures to support cross-border cooperation on the basis of the methodological approaches of a randomized controlled trial.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):126-136
pages 126-136 views

Choosing effective solutions in conflict situations taking into account the interests of stakeholders

Yurlov F.F., Yashin S.N., Plekhanova A.F.

Abstract

When choosing effective tactical and strategic decisions by business entities, it is necessary to take into account the interests of stakeholders. From the point of view of increasing competitiveness, the main importance should be given to competitors, as the most important external stakeholders. Competitors have directly opposite interests to the analyzed economic entities and have a negative impact on their activities, therefore, conflict situations arise. In this paper, we propose a method for selecting effective solutions, taking into account the interests of competitors as the most important stakeholders. The proposed methodology can be used in the analysis of systems for various purposes and includes the formation of the goals of the analyzed object, the identification and selection of competitors and the formulation of strategies of the parties to the conflict. The efficiency matrix is formed using the efficiency functions and the antagonism condition of the analyzed objects. The choice of effective solutions is made by choosing the principle of optimality. A special feature of the proposed methodology is the complex application of theories: competition theory, stakeholder theory, and antagonistic game theory. The proposed methodology can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of systems for various purposes: industrial enterprises, commercial organizations, investment projects, research organizations, etc.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):137-146
pages 137-146 views

MATHEMATICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL METHODS OF ECONOMICS

Vector model of error correction in modeling the relationship between bank lending indicators and the growth rates of the Russian economy

Ivanov D.Y., Tali T.M.

Abstract

The article discusses the problem of modeling the functional dependence of the volume of loans issued and the growth rate of the Russian economy. The relevance of this study is due to the need to identify the factors affecting the growth of the indicator of real gross domestic product. The analyzed domestic and foreign sources do not provide a single set of factors affecting the growth rate of the national economy, highlighting financial mechanisms, production processes, lending volumes to individuals and legal entities, investment activity, etc. The article notes the problem of the formation of a multifactor model of the influence of various parameters on the indicator of the growth rate of the national economy. The process of modeling the functional dependence of GDP on the elements of the influence vector is complicated by the specifics of statistical data. In order to avoid such problems associated with series cointegration, a vector error correction model was proposed. The model was tested on statistical data of organizations in the banking sector and enterprises of the real sector of the Russian economy. It was revealed that under the existing conditions of organizing the lending process, the banking system works not so much to increase production volumes as to maintain the level of the financial condition of economic entities (maintaining the level of liquidity and increasing financial investments), while not contributing to a change in the overall structure of the Russian economy. The developed vector model of error correction makes it possible to measure deviations from equilibrium and the rate of its recovery, which indicates the greater efficiency of this technique. At the same time, the above results allow us to conclude that in the presence of a positive relationship between the volume of lending and the main indicators, the degree of influence of lending on economic growth is generally insignificant

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):147-154
pages 147-154 views

Tools of planning the balanced cash flow at production of the missile and space equipment

Inozemtsev V.V.

Abstract

The provided tools of planning of the balanced cash flow by production of the missile and space equipment consider features of activity of such enterprises and allow to plan and bring the budget of cash flow of the enterprise to a condition of feasibility, due to balance of inflows and cash outflows and attraction of bank loans, the most cost-efficient method taking into account strategic objectives.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):155-163
pages 155-163 views

Models of multiple regression as an instrument of regional mortgage markets’ functioning effectiveness assessment

Korosteleva T.S., Tselin V.E.

Abstract

The article is dedicated to issues related to the formation of the Russian Federation regions’ economically justified classifications by housing mortgage lending (HML) system’s stage of development, for the implementation of mortgage markets’ selective government adjustment policy. The purpose of the study is to develop the methodology of regions’ mortgage potential assessment based on the search of additional application solutions in the area of rapid assessment and forecasting of regional mortgage market’s state. To achieve the purpose, an additional version of common methodology of Russian Federation regions’ systematic ranking by HML system’s stage of development is represented, and its main steps are structured. Within the third step of new methodology, a multiple regression model of Factor 1 (F1) is developed, which was interpreted in author’s early studies as a performance indicator of regional mortgage market’s functioning effectiveness. The model’s development was based on the statistical processing’s results of 510 observations in 85 Russian Federation regions in a period from 2014 to 2019. The high accuracy of model’s approximation has been proved, as well as its statistical reliability. The application capabilities of the model are represented, particularly the results of period 2020-2021 forecasting for Samara region and Saint-Petersburg city. The ways of managing the rating of region through targeted distribution of available regional and federal resources received by the models’ predictors are outlined. The novelty of this study is contained in the results of adaptation of the new assessment methodology, which is based on the obtainment of multiple regression model for Factor 1. The methodology base of the study consists of systematic analysis methods and multivariate statistics, particularly regressive and correlation analysis methods.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):164-178
pages 164-178 views

Methodology for the latent indicators formation

Trusova A.Y., Ilina A.I.

Abstract

The food industry is the most important link in the food realm of the country, determining the possibility of its autonomous existence in critical situations. This type of industry plays a leading role in solving the issue of providing the population with food products in a sufficient range and quantity. The food industry is in demand all over the world, since the need for food is the basic need of every person. The uniqueness of the Russian food industry is determined by its close connection to regional peculiarities and, as a result, the uneven distribution of food industry enterprises across the country. The study is devoted to the analysis of interrelationships of the food industry indicators with the indicators of the socio-economic sphere and the formation of latent indicators of the economy according to the indicators of de- velopment of the food industry on the example of the Volga Federal District. The paper presents a multidimensional study of the closeness of relationship between the indicators of the food industry and the indicators of the socio- economic sphere using canonical analysis. The indicators of the food industry have the greatest connection with the indicators of public health, since the significant coefficient of canonical correlation in 2019 was more than 0.6. In this group of indicators, the analysis of canonical correlation revealed that such indicators as the production of livestock and poultry for slaughter, as well as the gross harvest of vegetables, have the most significant influence. The coefficients for the indicators of total fertility and mortality rates are dramatically high in the studied groups. This indicates that the de- terioration in the quality and quantity of products will lead to a decrease in the birth rate and an increase in the mortality rate. In this paper, based on canonical variables, the visualization of multidimensional data is carried out and a method for classifying regions in according to their resources and potential is proposed. The results of clustering focusing on the plant resources and trade potential show which territorial authorities situated close can exchange technological experi- ence and provide support to each other. The paper also ranks the entities of the Volga Federal District, according the degree of impact of the food sector indicators with the use of latent indicators.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):179-191
pages 179-191 views

Intensity of logistics processes of production

Chertykovtsev V.K.

Abstract

Increasing the intensity of the production process is directly related to improving the quality of human life. Today, there is a need for a quick and flexible response to changing consumer priorities. The solution to this complex problem is taken over by logistics. The logistics process is a sequence of operations that are organized in a certain way in time, allowing you to achieve your goals. The subject of the study of the logistics process is the organization, coordination, and optimization of the movement of material and related flows. The structure of the logistics process includes the following links: natural resources; mining; recycling; storage; distribution; transpor- tation of products. A simulation model of the logistics chain consisting of the above-listed links has been devel- oped. Resources are an energy source that feeds the logistics chain and ensures the movement of the material flow. Recycling – transformation, transformation of resources into a specific type of product. Transport – repre- sents active losses. Storage – the delay in the movement of the material flow for the duration of storage. Distribu- tion – costs for the trading sector. Mathematical models for studying the intensity of production processes using the Mathcad program are developed. The analysis was carried out: of a market model of the intensity of the flows of the production process of the market economy with a different resource bases; of a planned model of the inten- sity of the flows of the production process of the planned economy with different resource bases.

Vestnik of Samara University. Economics and Management. 2021;12(3):192-199
pages 192-199 views

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