# Vol 13, No 3 (2023)

## EDITORIAL

### The hot summer of 2023 or the cold one of 1953

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):301-305
301-305

## GENERAL ISSUES OF FORMALIZATION IN THE DESIGNING: ONTOLOGICAL ASPECTS

### The concept of a set in the theory and practice of designing

Borgest N.M.

#### Abstract

The concept of a set is one of the key concepts in mathematics and not only. To further the discussion, assessments of the significance of sets in designing, generated by large language models, are given as a kind of generalized take on the importance of this concept. An analysis of the concepts of a set and a class in mathematics and engineering is provided. The multiplicity of their interpretations and the difference in various fields of application directly related to the concept of “element of the set”, are shown. In designing, the concept of a set is considered in various aspects and is filled with different content. First of all, it is a set of needs that continuously arise, and the design activity, accompanied by a multitude of design subjects participating in it, is aimed at satisfying them. It is also a set of precedents (already created artifacts), which are analogues and prototypes for the designer, but for one reason or another do not satisfy the emerging needs of the subjects.  There are sets of: design parameters and design variables of the object being developed; criteria for evaluating a new artifact; background assumptions, data and conditions, including limitations; models describing the designed object; decision-making methods and, finally, a variety of design decisions. An objectively existing set of values of initial data and evaluation criteria in designing can be and is considered as an uncertainty (uncertain set), and as a given that must be revealed, narrowing the range of solutions and lowering the power of sets. In designing practice (removal of uncertainty, degeneration of the multiplicity of possible values of design parameters, etc.) one always strives for a singleton (a set with a single element), i.e. to the design solution that will be embodied in a design, technology or system.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):306-332
306-332

## APPLIED ONTOLOGY OF DESIGNING

### Personalized engineering documentation templates in instructional design: ontological aspects and situation-based implementation

Mironov V.V., Gusarenko A.S., Tuguzbaev G.A.

#### Abstract

Information support for instructional design based on personalized automation is considered. Instructional design in a technical educational institution involves the development of engineering documentation, which includes, along with technical solutions, a significant amount of formal information provided for by standards and methodological requirements. Automated generation of personalized templates (blanks) of engineering documents makes it possible to reduce the labor intensity of routine stages of the instructional design process for students and teachers. The article discusses the conceptual scheme of this process, including the corresponding system of concepts and relationships connecting them taking into account the multivariance of design tasks and the multi-stage nature of design process. During personalization, the data of participants in the process, a version of the technical specifications, and related events are entered into the template. For multi-stage projects, templates are also personalized, considering technical decisions made at previous design stages. The implementation of the proposed concept of the instructional design process based on a situation-oriented approach is considered. The practical use of the results in the course design of database models involves the generation of personalized graphic documents in open formats of the Visio editor. The proposed personalization is focused on graphic documents in the form of diagrams and can be applied to drawings as well as text documents.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):333-351
333-351

Solovov A.V., Menshikova A.A.

#### Abstract

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):352-367
352-367

### Designing onboard cable networks components considering the manufacturability requirements

Myasnikov A.Y.

#### Abstract

The design of the onboard cable network components of an aircraft that meet the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation is considered. The stages of the life cycle of the aircraft are noted, at which the analysis and evaluation of the technical solutions adopted at the design stage of the aircraft, aimed at adaptability to the installation and dismantling of products and components of the aircraft, take place. The scope of the design documentation required for the manufacture of onboard cable network components is determined. The peculiarity of the design stages and the inconsistency of the requirements of the regulatory and technical documentation used in designing onboard cable network components of the aircraft are indicated. A set of requirements for manufacturability, efficiency, reliability and electromagnetic compatibility of onboard cable network components is formalized. The criteria for the harness manufacturability are determined. A method is proposed for synthesizing the image of the onboard cable network components using a graph which vertices are supplemented with attributes that characterize the features of a wired connection to the elements of onboard systems. An algorithm of the designer's actions is developed when determining the need to introduce a connector into an electrical circuit, taking into account the requirements of the electromagnetic compatibility of wires. Recommendations for designers of aircraft onboard cable network components are formulated.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):368-379
368-379

### Ontological models of the development of urban areas from the stand-point of applied cultural studies

Denisov D.V., Zhuravlev M.Y., Medvedeva N.Y., Zhuravleva T.D.

#### Abstract

The object of research is the universal processes of space development in urban planning. An ontological model of space development is proposed, applicable to the zoning of megacities and public spaces, allowing its sectoral and zigzag representation. Territorial planning is defined as the formalization of the genesis and self-organization processes. The formalization includes eight stages of the self-organization process, absolute and relative spatial interpretation of each stage, and a set of urban planning functions for each stage. This approach can be used to examine the zoning of public spaces both as part of the designed public space and in the surrounding buildings. In the sectoral ontological model, the development of space is presented as a process of genesis, directed from the general to the particular and having an absolute or relative orientation to the cardinal points. In the zigzag ontological model, a relative spatial orientation is established between adjacent objects. The novelty of the study lies in the establishment of common principles for structuring space for megacities and their public spaces.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):380-391
380-391

## ONTOLOGY ENGINEERING

### Finding dependencies in data based on methods of satisfying table con-straints

Zuenko A.A., Zuenko O.N.

#### Abstract

The work deals with the search for a special type of regularities in data, called frequent patterns. A frequent pattern is understood as a certain set of attributes that characterizes a sufficiently large number of objects of the training sample. There are many methods for pattern discovery, but they usually do not allow flexible consideration of necessary requirements for their type. Taking into account the new conditions that the desired patterns must meet leads in practice to a time-consuming modification of used algorithms and a decrease in computing performance. This article proposes a new approach based on the constraint programming paradigm, which is free from the listed disadvantages. The approach is based on the original way of presenting the training sample using specialized table constraints – compressed  D-type tables, on the author's method of backtracking, as well as on specialized reduction rules for table constraints. Particular attention is paid to solving the closed patterns discovery problem, which is included as part of the solution of all machine learning problems considered in the work, which means taking into account additional requirements for the type of patterns. As additional requirements to the type of pattern, constraints on the frequency of occurrence of a closed pattern, as well as conditions for the occurrence of some element (attribute) into the pattern, are considered. To the basic rules for the reduction of compressed D-type tables, rules are added that take into account the interesting attributes of the analyzed patterns. The advantage of the approach is that the taking into account and analyzing new constraints makes it possible to speed up the calculation process.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):302-404
302-404

## METHODS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF DECISION MAKING

### Ontology of guided development of scientific abilities of young people. Part 1: basic concepts and models

Piyavsky S.A.

#### Abstract

The article attempts to analyze new trends in work with gifted youth as a new form of systemic, organizational and scientifically oriented independent activity of a motivated schoolchild or student. This activity, firstly, is aimed at satisfying the cognitive, intellectual, as well as other needs of the student and the effective development of their creative potential; secondly, it is associated with the consistent solution of research problems with not foreknown results, increasing novelty, relevance and complexity; thirdly, it is supported by a specially organized unified developing scientific and educational environment within the framework of its educational organization, region, industry, country; and finally, it involves a scientifically based unified assessment of both the developing effect and the scientific significance of the current results of this activity . The article discusses the basic concepts characterizing this activity and illustrating their examples and mathematical models. These include the author's structuring of the functions and levels of research activity, a multifaceted system of criteria for evaluating the scientific and developmental results of research work performed by young researchers, a functional profile, a functional rating and a professional functional rating of a young researcher, calculated based on the assessment results of their research work. For the first time, a mathematical model for the formation of acceptable options for research activities is proposed, which allows forming the optimal developing methodological structure of planned research. One of the unique points of the proposed approach is the widespread use of ordinal rating scales with the transformation of the results of their application into quantitative estimates based on the method of confident judgments of decision makers. The introduced concepts are formed into a graphical scheme of the ontology of guided development of scientific abilities of young people.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):405-423
405-423

### Decision Support System for autonomous vehicle maintenance management

Orlov S.P., Susarev S.V.

#### Abstract

Autonomous vehicles are complex objects equipped with the tools for monitoring the technical condition and transmitting data for diagnostics and prediction. The design of new models of autonomous and robotic vehicles is inextricably linked with the development of a maintenance system. The efficient functioning of the maintenance system is ensured by the use of intelligent technologies and digital twins. The article proposes an approach to designing a decision support system for the maintenance and repair of a fleet of autonomous vehicles. The decision support system is focused on robotic agricultural vehicles. The proposed structure of the system is of a general nature and can be used in transport and logistics enterprises in various sectors of the economy. The general architecture of the maintenance system is presented, including the neuro-digital twin of the vehicle, the analytics unit, simulation models of operation processes, and service centers. The components of the neuro-digital twin are digital twins of car units, a knowledge base, domain ontology, artificial neural networks, and a team of experts. The proposed approach is based on a combination of intelligent technologies and simulation modeling in collaboration with a team of experts. A set of original simulation models for the operation of a fleet of autonomous vehicles has been developed. New models based on stochastic timed colored Petri nets are proposed to analyze the processes during the autonomous vehicle operation. The developed decision support system can be used both at the stage of virtual commissioning and in the real operation of autonomous vehicles.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):424-436
424-436

### Thematic interpretation of aerial photographs of forest areas based on conceptual modeling

Shoshina K.V., Aleshko R.A., Berezovsky V.V., Vasendina I.S., Shoshin A.S., Guryev A.T.

#### Abstract

Earth remote sensing (ERS) is one of the main sources of information about the earth's surface. With the development of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), it became possible to take aerial photographs with high spatial resolution, which can be used to more accurately identify objects. The purpose of the study is to increase the reliability of aerial imagery interpretation by developing a methodology for automated image processing based on conceptual modeling. An analysis of the methods for thematic interpretation of images showed that none of them provides sufficient quality of segmentation without additional adjustment to the subject area. The technique of conceptual modeling of subject tasks is applied, which ensures the adequacy of syntactic representations (including various images) and makes it possible to control the logic of solving problems and reduce the number of errors at the stage of its software implementation. The description of the information system for thematic interpretation of images, which implements the developed methodology, is given. An assessment was made of the reliability of thematic interpretation of images of forest areas. It is shown that the developed technique allowed to improve the identification of forest objects on aerial photographs by 18.6%. The development of this technique can be carried out to determine the characteristics of identifiable trees: age, species, height, and wood stock.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):437-454
437-454

### Mobile application for finding the best route on campus

Dusakaeva S.T., Savinov V.V.

#### Abstract

The actual task of developing a mobile application for finding the optimal route on a university campus is considered. The mathematical basis for designing a mobile application is the task of finding the shortest route in a graph whose vertices are classrooms, laboratories, libraries, departments, dean's offices, etc. in the buildings of the university.The analysis of the main characteristics of existing mobile applications for walking navigation has been carried out, their advantages and disadvantages have been identified. The well-known algorithms for finding the shortest path in a graph are considered: breadth-first search, greedy algorithm, and Dijkstra shortest path algorithm. For the task under consideration, a software implementation and an auxiliary service have been developed to create maps and bring them to a format in which a graph is automatically created for the correct operation of the application. The novelty of the proposed development lies in the possibility of displaying, adding and editing various maps. Further improvement of the developed mobile application can be carried out in the direction of increasing the accuracy of navigation by combining algorithms for finding paths in a graph, as well as in translating maps from 2D to 3D. The results of the study can be used to find the best routes in other universities.

Ontology of Designing. 2023;13(3):455-464
455-464