Vol 21, No 4 (2022)

Full Issue


Basic aspects of topological technology of automated on-board equipment layout in space vehicle compartments using the example of “Yantar-2k” Earth remote sensing space vehicle

Belyakov A.A., Shulepov A.I.


The article presents the theoretical foundations of automated design of on-board equipment layout in spacecraft compartments in terms of topology. The purpose of the work is to create a flexible arrangement model that would allow solving the problem for any configuration of the structure, taking into account the engineering and operational restrictions imposed on the objects located in a limited space. The technology is formalized according to the methods of the foundations of topology and in this work is demonstrated for a two-dimensional case by comparing it with a reference design-layout scheme. The functional, installation, dimensional, thermal, vibroacoustic requirements are taken into account with the mass-centering restrictions of the layout. In the course of the study, a new approach to describing the design process of assembling on-board equipment was obtained, which can be fully digitized and then integrated into known computer-aided design systems. It has been verified using the example of the power supply system of the “Yantar-2k” spacecraft.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):7-24
pages 7-24 views

Calculation of optimum transfers from high-elliptic orbits to geostationary orbits using a stationary plasma engine

Kvetkin A.A., Kolesov A.V.



The paper presents solutions of the problem of choosing flights of a spacecraft from high elliptic orbits to a geostationary orbit using a stationary plasma engine. The problem of optimal variation of the semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination, minimizing the discrepancies in these elements with the use of a locally optimal control law that ensures a joint change of these parameters is also solved. An algorithm for determining the weighting coefficients is given; the algorithm ensures simultaneous fulfillment of boundary conditions for the semi-major axis, eccentricity and inclination is given. The results of numerical simulation based on the results of optimization of flights of a communication satellite from a highly elliptical orbit to the geostationary orbit are presented. Based on the results of numerical simulation, plots of the orbit parameters against time are constructed. The results of the data obtained make it possible to draw a conclusion about the possibility of applying a scheme of joint changes in the orbit parameters.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):25-32
pages 25-32 views

Methodology for thermal calculation of the heat exchanger for cooling the air at the intake of the aerospace plane engine compressor

Panchenko S.L., Gras’ko T.V.


The tasks performed by modern military aircraft are currently expanding, as they are solved both in the air and in the aerospace, at high altitudes and at high flight speeds. However, in this case, the use of turbojet engines operation on aviation kerosene is not possible because of the high temperatures of aircraft structural elements due to aerodynamic heating that leads to the destruction of kerosene and the impossibility of using it as fuel. It is necessary to search for alternative fuel options, one of which is cryogenic fuel. This article substantiates the possibility of using cryogenic fuel, in particular hydrogen, for aerospace plane engines. Hydrogen has higher energetic qualities compared to aviation kerosene. The necessity of cooling the air before it enters the engine at high flight speeds of the aircraft has been proved. A design of the heat exchanger for cooling the air entering the compressor is proposed, and a method for its thermal calculation is developed, which is necessary when designing the structural layout of aerospace plane propulsion system.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):33-43
pages 33-43 views

Calculation of aircraft lever-float valves using neural networks

Pushkarev D.O., Kiselev D.Y., Kiselev Y.V.


The possibility of using neural networks in aviation is shown, in particular in products intended for use in aviation technology. The possibility of using neural networks throughout the entire life cycle of aviation equipment products is analyzed. The advantages that can be obtained using neural networks are described. The main stages of creating a neural network model are analyzed and a description of each stage is presented. The difficulties associated with the practical application of models based on artificial intelligence are shown. The calculation of the operation of a lever-float valve is presented and a neural network model is made for its calculation using real operation and test data.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):44-51
pages 44-51 views

Optical characteristics of a multilayer solar sail and their effect on its heliocentric motion

Rozhkov M.A.


The purpose of this work is to determine the influence of the optical characteristics of a thin multilayer solar sail on its orbital motion. First of all, the influence of the coefficients of reflection, scattering and absorption is investigated. These coefficients are computed on the basis of a mathematical model of the optical characteristics of a multilayer epitaxial thin film which is a solar sail itself. The paper considers the effect of temperature changes and sail surface degradation on its optical properties. Modeling of changes in optical characteristics is carried out drawing on an example of heliocentric flight from the Earth to Mercury applying locally optimal control laws. Applying the transfer matrix method and considering the distribution of solar spectral radiation optical parameters for two distinct constructions of a solar sail were obtained (aluminum and silver front coating).  

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):52-65
pages 52-65 views

Methodology of designing a space transport system including a “DM” chemical upper stage and an electric rocket transport module

Russkikh A.S., Salmin V.V.


The article is devoted to the development of a methodology for designing a space transport system that has, in comparison with traditional injection scenarios, higher characteristics of the mass of the payload to be launched into high-energy orbits, including a geostationary one. The method is implemented by the systematization of design calculations and proposals for the rational design of interorbital vehicles with a combined propulsion system and the development of an algorithm for creating an electronic model of an interorbital vehicle in an automated designing PTC Creo system. The article considers algorithms for calculating the design parameters of the electric rocket transport module and ballistic parameters of the spacecraft flight to the target orbit. A method of forming conceptual design of an electric rocket transport module based on the obtained design parameters is also proposed. An electronic model of an electric rocket module was developed in a three-dimensional modeling system. The model displays the structural design of the module in accordance with the design parameters obtained and satisfies the design requirements imposed by other components of the space transport system. The proposed method makes it possible to design a space transport system that includes a DM upper stage and an electric rocket transport module designed to implement a combined payload injection scenario.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):66-75
pages 66-75 views


Thermal treatment effect on the mechanical properties of 1570, 1580 and 1590 aluminum alloys

Aryshensky E.V., Aryshensky V.Y., Drits A.М., Grechnikov F.V., Ragazin A.A.


The study addresses the effect of thermal treatment on the mechanical properties and grain size of magnesium rich alloys with small scandium additions 1570, 1580 and 1590. The effect of preheat temperature (within 260…440 °С range) and soaking time (within 2 – 100 hours range) on yield strength, tensile strength and relative elongation of the alloys under investigation  was analyzed. Mechanical properties were determined using uniaxial tensile tests in accordance with ISO 6892-1. In addition, for some modes the microstructure was studied for Al3Mg2 β-phase presence and distribution by optical metallography methods depending on thermal treatment conditions. The studies demonstrated that supersaturated solid solution in the 1570 alloy decomposes faster in the entire studied temperature range, and after 48 hours soaking, its strength properties start degrading. At the same time, the 1580 and 1590 alloys are much more thermally stable, with slightly lower yield strength after long soaking time, while tensile strength remains unchanged. The conditions of 260 °C annealing temperature are not favorable for plastic properties, severely degrading (due to β-phase formation) in the 1570 and 1580 alloys. Plastic properties degradation is not so evident at higher soaking temperature, however, the 1590 alloy maintains the highest plasticity indices.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):76-87
pages 76-87 views

Resistance of products made of steel 20GL to sulfide stress corrosion cracking

Blazhnov N.M., Borisenkova E.A., Khardin M.V.


The paper provides a short review of the history of the development of native and foreign regulatory requirements of testing for sulfide stress corrosion cracking. Systematic ambiguity (duplicated in the reviewed regulatory requirements) in the choice of test environment parameters and its influence on the interpretation of the results was revealed. A series of laboratory tests, the purpose of which was to specify the choice of the most favorable combinations of parameters (pH2S/pH combinations) of the test medium was conducted.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):88-96
pages 88-96 views

Development of microstructures for the formation of metamaterial properties of piezoelectric elements

But V.S., Kobelev A.A., Karpeev S.V.


Microcells were designed for subsequent modeling of piezoelectric and optical elements on their basis. The development of piezoelectric and optical elements from microcells was carried out and models were prepared for 3D printing. These designs can be used in practice as piezoacoustic or piezoelectric sensors if piezoelectric powder is added to their composition, for example, in ultrasonic flow meters, or used to create optical structures, for example, diffractive optical elements. The key characteristics and coefficients of piezoelectric structures, such as dielectric constant, conversion coefficient, dielectric loss coefficient, mechanical Q-factor, frequency constant, electromechanical coupling coefficient, piezoelectric charge coefficient, piezoelectric stress coefficient, elastic compliance coefficient, degradation rate, Curie point are analyzed. Elements produced by 3D printing will have properties different from those of elements produced by standard methods. These structures open up new opportunities for the development of ultrasonic research, mechanical engineering and instrument making.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):97-108
pages 97-108 views

Series of diagnostic indicators of gearbox teeth wear in aircraft gas turbine engines

Sundukov A.Y., Shakhmatov Y.V.


Aircraft gas turbine engine gearboxes are intended for providing optimum rotational speeds for propellers and fans. Wear of the tooth flanks is their key and most dangerous defect. The defect generates vibrations leading to fatigue failure of engine components. Vibration-based diagnostics is the most effective tool of non-destructive testing of the technical condition of rotating machines. This review of the known diagnostic indicators of the defect in question shows the need for its significant expansion. Previously performed researches made it possible to suggest a series of diagnostic indicators of tooth wear for the “sun gear – satellites” couple in the differential reducer of a gas turbine engine. It is shown that the mathematical models of the dependence of the levels of diagnostic indicators on the wear value have both linear and power form. It was found that diagnostic indicators described by power dependences are the closest ones to the model of wear development. It is noted that when selecting diagnostic indicators for operating conditions, the optimal ones should be recognized as those based on the parameters of the current frequency.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):109-117
pages 109-117 views


Approximate models of air transport queueing systems with partial mutual assistance between service channels

Romanenko V.A.


Approximate analytical models are proposed for two types of multi-channel queuing systems with partial mutual assistance between channels and waiting in limited-size and unbounded queues. The incoming flow of requests is a superposition of several simplest flows. It is assumed that normative numbers of channels for servicing a customer that differ depending on the flow of incoming customer requests are established. In the systems of the first type the normative number of channels is not necessary: a customer is accepted for servicing if there are free channels in the system and the number of channels is smaller than the normative one. Service time is distributed exponentially with the average inversely proportional to the number of allocated channels. In systems of the second type the service of a customer is always performed by the channels of the normative number. Service time can be distributed arbitrarily (not only exponentially) with the average irrespective of the number of allocated channels. The paper presents the results of comparative analysis of the results of dealing with some tasks of designing service systems in a wide range of input data using simulation modelling and calculations based on approximate analytical models that allowed evaluating the application area of the latter and making a conclusion about their satisfactory accuracy. Examples of the use of models of technological processes of airport ground handling as queuing systems of the considered types are given.

VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering. 2022;21(4):118-130
pages 118-130 views

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