# Vol 18, No 4 (2019)

**Year:**2019**Articles:**16**URL:**https://journals.ssau.ru/vestnik/issue/view/409

## Full Issue

## AIRCRAFT AND SPACE ROCKET ENGINEERING

### Experimental testing of heat flux sensors based on the inverse problem technique

#### Abstract

In final adjustment of thermally-loaded elements of space structures information on thermal loads (heat fluxes and surface temperatures) for the whole period of flight in the atmosphere is of primary importance. The level of temperature and the processes taking place on the surface of the heat shield do not always allow using conventional methods of measuring thermal loads. In this case determining thermal loads by the results of measuring the temperature at several points of elements of the heat shield structure is an alternative to direct measurements. The aim of this work is to develop and test sensors for measuring heat loading of thermal-protective coating of modern descent vehicles, as well as to test the developed methods of carrying out thermo-physical tests. Heat flux sensors for indestructible composite fibrous materials with a high degree of non-uniformity are described in the paper.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):7-17

### Analysis of SamSat-218D nanosatelite motion acording to trajectory measurements

#### Abstract

The motion of the SamSat-218D nanosatellite is analyzed by trajectory measurements. Special features of nanosatellite behavior in low orbits were experimentally confirmed. These features are due to both the influence of the atmosphere and the nanosatellites’ inherent mass-inertia characteristics: the orbital lifetime of nanosatellites is shorter, whereas angular acceleration generated by the aerodynamic moment couple is much higher than that of satellites with large sizes and masses. Variation of the ballistic coefficient in time is estimated from known trajectory measurements and information on the average density of the atmosphere at the points of trajectory measurements. The ballistic coefficient of the SamSat-218D nanosatellite having the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped depends on the spatial angle of attack and the angle of proper rotation. The ratio of the maximum value of the ballistic coefficient to the minimum value is 4.75. This made it possible to evaluate the nature of possible motion relative to the nanosatellite center of mass by the behavior of the ballistic coefficient. The most probable motion relative to the center of mass of the SamSat-218D nanosatellite is the transient motion between different equilibrium positions, due to commensurate aerodynamic and gravitational moments and insignificant angular velocities.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):18-28

### Comparative estimation of the accuracy of methods of autonomous navigation of small spacecraft in formation flying

#### Abstract

The results of comparative estimation of the accuracy of autonomous navigation of small spacecraft in formation flying are presented. To carry out the research, the “zenith” method and the method of navigation by orbital references were chosen. These methods are based on measurements of the angular position of the Earth and an orbital reference point relative to navigational stars. Assumptions concerning the central terrestrial gravitational field and the normality of errors of the on-board navigation measurements with known constant variability were introduced in the studies. The studies were carried out using the theory of analytical estimation of the accuracy of spacecraft autonomous navigation methods. The use of this theory makes it possible to obtain the covariance error matrix of the required vector of navigation parameters and to estimate the potential (maximum achievable) characteristics of the accuracy of the navigation methods used. A dimensionless navigation error coefficient was chosen as an indicator of the accuracy of small spacecraft navigation method. The coefficient is associated with the elements of the main diagonal of the covariance matrix, it characterizes the precision properties of the method, is integrated by nature and does not depend on the volume and accuracy of the results of navigation measurements. The criterion of expediency of applying the method of determining the parameters of motion of the spacecraft center of mass is based on the comparison of navigation error rates. The presented results allow us to make reasonable choice of the method of autonomous navigation and of the composition of the onboard control of small spacecraft in formation flying.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):29-40

### Application of differential evolution algorithm in the problem of aeroassisted orbital plane change maneuver

#### Abstract

The paper deals with application of the differential evolution method in optimizing aeroassisted orbital plane change maneuver performed by an aerospace vehicle with a high lift-to-drag ratio. The vehicle’s motion relative to the Earth is described by a system of differential equations in the flight path axis system. The angle-of-attack and the air path bank angle control programs are presented in the form of Fourier series and thrust control has the form of flip-flop control. The results of solving problems without phase parameter constraints obtained by the differential evolution algorithm were compared with the results obtained using Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The solution of the optimization problem taking into account temperature limitations at the stagnation point was obtained on the basis of the differential evolution algorithm.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):41-51

### Verification of a design model and evaluation of a technique of manufacturing aircraft engine composite parts on the basis of dynamic tests

#### Abstract

The results of finite element modeling and experimental evaluation of dynamic characteristics (vibration modes and frequencies) of the composite element of aircraft power plant structures are presented. The aim of the work is to develop effective design and technological schemes for thin-walled complex-geometry composite parts, taking into account the peculiarities of mechanical behavior of polymer composite materials to the fullest extent possible. A method for determining the parameters of natural oscillations of composite parts in a free state using a ping test is developed, which allows excluding the influence of kinematic boundary conditions and obtaining frequency characteristics that depend only on the local characteristics of the material which are primarily determined by the manufacturing technology. According to the results of measurements of the amplitude-frequency parameters of the dynamic response, spectrograms of damped oscillations are obtained the peak values of which correspond to the experimental evaluation of the natural frequencies of the composite part. Verification of the design model was carried out according to the results of the ping test and a method for assessing the quality of technological processes of manufacturing thin-walled carbon fiber structures was proposed.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):52-63

### Improvement of fretting wear resistance of blade root made of polymer composite material

#### Abstract

Polymer composite materials (PCM) are being increasingly used in aircraft engine industry. Development of PCM fan blade manufacturing technology that meets all the necessary strength requirements is an important task in creating Russian-made latest-generation engines. One of the problems to be faced is the wear of the blade root caused by cyclic micro-displacements in the interlock under the action of external forces. There are several engineering solutions to control surface wear of blade roots made of PCM that can basically be divided into three groups: manufacture of metal roots and the use of known methods of metal fretting prevention, use of replaceable special inserts placed between the contact surfaces of the root and the disk slot, application of elastic and damping elements. In this paper, we consider another method of controlling wear, the principal feature of which is stitching the blade pre-form with aramid thread that forms a layer with higher wear resistance on the root surface. In order to verify the efficiency of the proposed approach, model blades were made and tests were carried out on an electrodynamic shaker.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):64-75

### Development of ordinary harness for aircraft onboard cable networks

#### Abstract

The article is devoted to one of the most important components of the onboard complex of aircraft equipment - the onboard cable network. The contents of the design documentation for the aircraft onboard cable network are disclosed. The statement of the problem of designing harnesses is defined in general terms. The main stages of designing aircraft onboard cable networks are described on the verbal level, as well as in the form of logical algorithms and graph-algorithms. Some theoretical aspects of designing aircraft onboard cable networks are presented. The concepts of topological space, topological structure, and continuous mapping of the harness structure into the aircraft structure are introduced. Geometric research of an ordinary cable harness of the onboard cable network led to the need to consider the harnesses as a geometric complex in the framework of combinatorial topology. An example of compiling a table of connections of ordinary harnesses for the aircraft onboard system of ultra-short wave communication is given. The rules and requirements for the information content of the table of connections of an ordinary harness to the aircraft on-board system are emphasized. Mention is made of the need to integrate ordinary harnesses into a complex one consisting of tens or even hundreds of ordinary harnesses to simplify the process of installation of the onboard cable network in the aircraft.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):76-86

### Simulation model of oscillations of the “sun gear – satellites” pair of turboprop engine planetary reduction gearbox in the presence of defects of tooth flanks

#### Abstract

Defects of planetary reduction gearboxes of turboprop engines often cause excitation of high-frequency oscillations that bring about failures of compressor structural elements. The vibration behavior of these reduction grarboxes is a broadband process with the presence of a large quantity of vibration components, which significantly complicates the search for informative diagnostic indicators of defects. In order to simplify the procedure of identifying the vibrations caused by defects of toothed gearing a simulation model of the vibration behavior of a turboprop engine differential gear unit is proposed. The model takes into account kinematics and design of the gearbox, determines the structure of its vibration behavior in the presence of defects on the tooth flanks. Using the example of a commonly occurring defect in the form of wear of the teeth of the “solar gear – satellites” pair the adequacy of the model to the actual vibration behavior of the mechanism is shown.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):87-95

### Formation of film cooling on the turbine blade back and pressure side in the case of using V-shaped dimples

#### Abstract

Alongside the development of methods of intensifying convective heat transfer inside the blade, development of methods of local improvement of the efficiency of film cooling of the blade’s surface is still of immediate interest. The film is formed on the blade surface in conditions of high-camber shape and low initial velocity of the gas flow in the vicinity of the leading edge with its subsequent abrupt acceleration. The paper presents some data on the peculiarities of film formation on the back and pressure side of the blade in the vicinity of the leading edge. Experimental temperature distribution over the adiabatic wall was obtained with the use of a FLIR-E 64501 thermal imager. It was found that the conditions for the film formation on the blade back are more favorable than those on the pressure side. It manifests itself in the fact that optimal blowing parameters on the blade back are considerably lower than those on the pressure side. The use of V-shaped dimples located on the wall immediately behind the holes for blowing was suggested as a measure for local improvement of film cooling efficiency. The efficiencies of film cooling in the formation of a curtain, without the use and with the use of V-shaped dimples behind the holes for blowing were compared. Local improvement of efficiency and uniformity of film cooling distribution with the use of V-shaped dimples behind the holes for blowing was observed.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):96-105

### Computer-aided design of low-thust rocket engines using the domain-specific knowledge database and CAE / CAD systems

#### Abstract

The paper presents approaches to computer-aided design of low-thrust thrust rocket engines using an extensive knowledge base that allows making basic technical decisions that determine the conceptual design of the engine, based on the developed algorithm of this process. The procedure of creating an electronic 3D-model of a low-thrust rocket engine fueled by gaseous oxygen-hydrogen in the environment of the graphical complex UNIGRAPHICS is described. 3D electronic models of the main elements of a rocket engine with a thrust of *P* = 25 N were obtained, with subsequent virtual assembly of all components, including the components comprised in the knowledge base, providing the development, among other things, of design documentation, creation of a production environment based on an electronic engine model, preparation for the product manufacturing and the manufacturing proper.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):106-116

### Control program for noncoplanar heliocentric flight to Venus of non-perfectly reflecting solar sail spacecraft

#### Abstract

A noncoplanar controlled heliocentric flight to Venus of a spacecraft with a non-perfectly reflecting solar sail is considered. The aim of the heliocentric flight is to get a spacecraft into Hill sphere of Venus with zero hyperbolic excess velocity. An algorithm has been developed for applying the locally optimal control laws for the fastest change of the osculating elements. Solar sail orientation is controlled by thin-film control elements arranged along the solar sail surface perimeter. The flight trajectory, the control program and the required width and area of thin-film control elements are obtained as a result of motion simulation.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):117-128

### Solving the problem of minimax closed-loop control of liquid-propellant launch vehicle fuel consumption control

#### Abstract

The paper provides mathematical formalization and a method of solving the problem of minimax (guaranteed) closed-loop terminal control of fuel consumption of a liquid-propellant launch vehicle power plant. The initial discrete-continuous nonlinear model of the controlled object is linearized along the given reference phase path and is approximated by a linear discrete-time multistep dynamical system. The approximated system includes the state vector, the control vector and the disturbance vector that defines the error of formation of the approximated model. Taking into account the geometrical constrains of control and disturbance vectors in the approximated system, we formulate the main problem of minimax closed-loop terminal control of propellant consumption of the launch vehicle’s propulsion system. This problem consists in solving a number of auxiliary tasks of minimax open-loop terminal control. To solve each of these tasks we use an instrument of development and analysis of generalized attainability domains of the approximated linear discrete dynamical system. These techniques are implemented by modifying the general recurrent algebraic method. To solve the problems under consideration we propose an approach and an appropriate numerical algorithm that is reduced to the implementation of a finite sequence of only one-step algebraic and optimization operations. The efficiency of the proposed approach to solving the problem under consideration is demonstrated and verified by a computer simulation example. This simulation example consists in controlling the process of propellant consumption for “Soyuz-2.1b” launch vehicle’s third stage propulsion system.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):129-145

### Optimal control of spacecraft motion in the vicinity of Eros 433 asteroid

#### Abstract

The article describes an algorithm for optimizing controlled motion of a spacecraft equipped with low-thrust electric propulsion engines maneuvering in the vicinity of an object with an irregular gravitational field (asteroid Eros 433). A mathematical model of the object’s gravitational potential and a model of spacecraft motion are presented. The Pontryagin maximum principle is used to get the time-optimal control program. The formulated boundary value problem is solved numerically by the modified Newton method. The described algorithm can be used to solve similar problems of low-thrust flight dynamics in the vicinity of objects with irregular gravitational fields.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):146-156

## MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

### Research of the influence of electron beam welding of titanium alloys on hydrogen distribution in the weld

#### Abstract

The paper presents the results of analyzing distribution of hydrogen in welded joints obtained by electron beam welding of titanium alloys VT20 and VT23. The distribution of hydrogen in the cross section of welded joints was measured in the area of the weld, in the heat-affected zone and in the base metal by means of spectral analysis using low-voltage pulse discharge on the spectrograph ISP-51. It was established that hydrogen peaks in fixed joints obtained by electron beam welding, unlike argon arc welding, are located not only in the heat-affected area, but also in the сentral part of the welded joint. Chemical analysis of fractures of fixed joints investigated with the aid of a scanning electron microscope Hitachi S-3400N showed that the pores in the welded joints made by electron beam welding occur due to the desorption of capillary-condensed contaminants located in the defects of the edge surface into the melt and due to selective grain boundary fusion because of insufficient temperature conditions of whole grain melting. It was found that emerging variations in hydrogen content, with formation of defects, are influenced by the temperature conditions of heating of the welded edges, the welding rate and the thickness of welded blanks.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):157-168

### Process of forming mirror-shaped relief plates of folded structure

#### Abstract

We present a process flow sheet that allows dividing the process of shaping of folded structures into several stages. The formation of the relief is achieved by inverting individual sections of the trapezoidal corrugation to give them a mirror-reflected shape. The process is characterized by narrow zones of bending deformations along the lines of the structure marking and by warping of faces without drawing. The field shaper layout and the relationships for calculating geometric and process parameters are presented.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):169-182

## INFORMATION SCIENCE, COMPUTING TECHNOLOGY AND CONTROL

### Fuzzy-controller simulation model as a tool of optimization of a limited availability ground handling system at a hub airport

#### Abstract

The task of optimizing the optimal quantity of technological resources of a hub airport’s functional subsystem, executing an individual process step of ground handling, is considered. This problem is relevant to hub airports. The analysis is limited to limited availability systems in which handling of certain orders can be performed only by certain resources which are used in reference to automated and mechanical equipment, industrial equipment, personnel, etc. The optimization problem is formulated in a probabilistic statement. An approach to solving the problem is described. We suggest using a simulation computer model as an optimization tool. The model takes into account the features of passenger flows and the operating process of a hub airport and includes a fuzzy controller that reflects the logic of the airport operator who controls the ground handling process. The paper describes a model example of solving an optimization problem indicating the possibility and expedience of using a fuzzy controller as a model for the strategy of a human operator. Time dependence of the quantity of technological resources of the functional subsystem is the main result of optimization. This dependence is applicable at the stages of making decisions concerning increase of its capacity rate, operative resource management, planning staff shift work, solving a number of other tasks, especially relevant for hub airports with intense but non-uniform flows of aircraft and passengers.

**VESTNIK of Samara University. Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering**. 2019;18(4):183-191