DEVELOPMENT OF A RISK MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES IN THE FIELD OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT


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Abstract

This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms for implementing sustainable development strategies at industrial enterprises. The normative and legal documents characterizing the activities aimed at the sustainable development of organizations are analyzed. The main approaches to ensure the sustainability of enterprises are identified, as well as a new direction – investment strategies for sustainable development of the enterprise, the basic types of these strategies are considered. The model of the influence of material and non-material factors on the company's activities within the framework of sustainable development is analyzed. Based on the generalization of models and mechanisms, a scheme for the implementation of a strategy for the sustainable development of industrial enterprises, taking into account industrial risks, is proposed.

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In the modern world, most enterprises approach their activities responsibly from the point of view of environmental impact. There is a shift in the vector from an active increase in production to sustainable development, implying satisfaction of needs without prejudice to future generations. The concept of "ecosystem approach" arises.
Management of industrial enterprises as ecological and economic systems arose due to the fact that the rate of resource processing exceeded the rate of restoration of the natural balance. This is due to the scientific and technological revolution, which contributes to the growth of environmental pollution. To assess the effectiveness of sustainable development, organizations distinguish an economic and ecosystem approach. According to the first, it is necessary to take into account the following indicators: competitive position in the market, business processes at the enterprise, production development and the level of financial and economic stability. The aim of the ecosystem approach is to maximize the preservation of the environment by combining industrial, social and environmental development [1].
The development of a sustainable development strategy is one of the key components of managing the sustainability of an industrial enterprise, in particular, in conditions of uncertainty. A feature of this process is the constant stabilization of the organization's activities. This is the relevance of the study.
The aim of the work is to develop an industrial risk management strategy in the context of sustainable development of enterprises.
The regulatory legal acts regulate the concept of sustainable development and its implementation in organizations operating in the territory of the Russian Federation. The first consolidation of the concept of sustainable development within the state in regulatory documents dates back to 1996, when the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation on the concept of the transition of the Russian Federation to sustainable development was issued [2].
In 2015, the UN Summit adopted a document listing 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) until 2030 [3].
The achievement of the above-mentioned goals in the Russian Federation is regulated by a number of regulatory legal acts [4, 5, 6].
A number of NPAs contain the main national development goals of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2030, as well as targets characterizing their achievement [7, 8, 9].
Thus, the sustainable development of industrial enterprises becomes one of the main activities of organizations. In the next section, based on an overview of existing models and methods of implementing the concept of sustainable development in the framework of risk management of industrial enterprises.

Research conditions and methods
Industrial enterprises carry out their activities in conditions of uncertainty arising from the instability of the external and internal environment of organizations. Such a state is reflected in the sustainable development of companies, therefore it is necessary to use new approaches to ensure the functioning of the organization at the proper level. Kuznetsova M.O. analyzed various interpretations of the concept of "strategic sustainability of the enterprise" and identified approaches to understanding this category (Table. 1) [10].
Table 1. Approaches to strategic sustainability of the enterprise
Name of the approach Process System Time
The purpose of the approach is to control the factors of the external and internal environment stability of individual components of the system control of the values of indicators in a certain range
Researchers who adhere to this approach P. Bansal,
M.R. Desjardin,
T.V. Terentyeva, E.B. Gerasimova,
M.N. Dudin,
G.B. Kleiner,
N.A. Sabanchiev S.V. Grigorieva,
E.S. Grigoryan,
M.V. Samosudov,
N.S. Yashin
Analyzing the resulting table, we can conclude that the approaches considered allow us to assess the degree of strategic sustainability of organizations. But for a comprehensive study of the situation at an industrial enterprise, a generalization of approaches is necessary. Kuznetsova M.O. suggests an integrated approach that assumes a systematic view of the entire enterprise as a whole, as well as not only the development of performance indicators, but also their threshold values that characterize sustainability.
In their study, Kovalenko A.S. and Sokolitsyn I.I. examined approaches to the definition of the concept of "sustainable enterprise development" and identified the following main components of enterprise sustainability:
 economic (financial, marketing, production);
 social;
 environmental;
 institutional.
The researchers note that the stability of an organization is a systemic property aimed at maintaining the balance of the entire work as a whole. In addition, an explanation is given why exactly such components are highlighted. Previously, the first three of them were singled out as a stability bar, but then it was revealed that the institutional aspects of the company's activities also have an impact [11].
Zinin A.D. notes that there is a complication of organizational structures of enterprises, as well as an increase in the number of functions of each of the subsystems, therefore industrial enterprises are considered complex systems. The researcher presents a list of elements that need to be included in the sustainable development management model. Among the methods of sustainable development management are: diversification, risk avoidance, compensation, localization, redundancy. Any of the strategies implies the search for the most profitable solutions taking into account the constantly changing environment [12].
The implementation of sustainable development strategies at industrial enterprises has its own specifics and includes several key components. The first element is the strategic goals of the enterprise, focused on sustainable development, taking into account the current opportunities to achieve them. The second is the elements of production sustainability, which consist in increasing the efficiency of resource use. The third is the elements of financial and economic stability, focused on increasing solvency. The fourth is the elements of organizational and managerial sustainability, which is the training of managers for new tasks of the organization. The fifth is the elements of innovative growth through the introduction of new technologies.
Relatively recently, such a line of activity as investment support for the sustainable development of organizations has emerged. There are several basic investment strategies [13]:
 long-term investment (creation of new businesses);
operational investment (modernization of existing subsystems of the enterprise);
diversified investment (maintaining the rate of return of projects).
Sokolov A.P. developed a model demonstrating the influence of factors on the sustainable development of an industrial enterprise. According to this model, in addition to material and non-material factors, indirect factors also influence sustainable development: political, legislative, social, geographical. Tangible and intangible factors have an impact on the following groups:
 natural, human resources;
 entrepreneurial and financial capital;
 health, education and skill level;
 investments, production, infrastructure.
Thus, the modernization of industrial enterprises, including their sustainable development, should be considered as a multifactorial process leading to changes in the structure, behavior of people, etc. [14].
Risk analysis from the point of view of sustainable development goals contributes to a detailed elaboration of the strategy of the enterprise, facilitates planning, and also allows you to make forecasts for certain indicators. Due to the fact that industrial enterprises, as a rule, are large infrastructure units, implying not just production facilities, but an entire ecosystem, it is necessary to monitor the results of the work of all its elements. The introduction of elements of the concept of sustainable development at the enterprise allows for the competent use of resources with a focus on the future. One of the options for solving these issues is a risk-based approach that allows for a comprehensive assessment of all systems of the organization in order to identify the places of possible occurrence of risk situations and prevent it.

Results and their discussion
Based on the models and methods presented in the previous section, an industrial risk management scheme has been developed in the context of sustainable enterprise development (Fig. 1).

Sustainability indicators Stages of implementation of the sustainable development strategy Approaches to achieving enterprise sustainability
Economic (financial, marketing, production)

 

 


Social

 

 


Ecological

 

 


Institutional

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Process

 

 


System

 

 


Temporary

 

 


Integral

 

Fig. 1. Risk management scheme of industrial enterprises in the field of sustainable development

Analyzing the resulting figure, it can be concluded that the economic indicator has an impact on the largest number of stages of the implementation of the sustainable development strategy, and the integral approach to achieving the sustainability of the enterprise is used in preparing the list of problems and directly implementing the strategy. Based on this scheme, enterprises will be able to prepare a plan for the gradual restructuring of their activities.
Conclusion
Thus, the implementation of a sustainable development strategy at an industrial enterprise, taking into account risks, allows for an integrated approach to the organization's activities, including in conditions of uncertainty.
In the future, the study is planned to be directed to the development of a sustainable development strategy for a specific enterprise in order to assess the effectiveness of the implementation of this strategy.

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About the authors

Mariya V. Klyovina

Samara National Research University

Author for correspondence.
Email: mariya.klevina@mail.ru
ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0374-2793
SPIN-code: 4655-0843

1st year postgraduate student of the Department of Management and Production Organization, Public Relations specialist, Employment and Career Management

Russian Federation, 34, Moskovskoye shosse, Samara

References

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