MILLENNIALS AND CENTENIALS: THE NEW MANAGERS, THE CASE OF AGRO ENERGY COMPANY


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Abstract: Within this scientific article, the integration of millennials and centennials in comparation to Generation X managers, within a renewable energy company is detailed through a statistical study, the soft skills that a manager must have and develop for the good performance of their leadership functions were evaluated, on a scale that was measurable numerically, so it was decided to use the method of bias-correction for Cram´er’s V and Tschuprow’s T, were a  closely related nominal variable association measures,are estimated by their empirical values, At the conclusion of this study, it was determined that in the face of new technological trends and the development of new digital leadership skills necessary for increasingly digitized companies and unconventional jobs, millennials and centennials are the generation that will lead this change in leadership concepts and therefore both the best option for training within these hierarchical levels of companies.

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Conditions and Methods of Research:

The world of work adapts to the needs of a new era; The "fourth revolution", known as the digital revolution, has generated a transformation in organizations and talent management. This new era brings with it a new way of recruiting, retaining and directing talent in companies and many of these tasks fall under the responsibility of the organization's leader.Millennial managers are at their peak, the generation of those born between 1981 and 1996, also known as generation Y, have already been the most present workforce for five years, by 2025, 75% of the workforce will be made up of centennials and millennials.therefore, they are accelerating the professionalization of companies, A survey of nearly 8,000 millennials from 29 countries by Deloitte found that 64% of millennial managers and those in senior positions rely "on their own values ​​and morals to guide decision-making at work." [2], meanwhile, it is expected that the generation of centennial CEOs will prioritize the improvement of their soft skills (70%) over the acquisition of hard skills. The number one skill future leaders need is the ability to manage people and groups, financial remuneration is not the most important thing, they work for what they are passionate about, make sure that their passion is always present and on.

In 2015, the study “The Millennial Leadership Survey” was published, which revealed that 91% of millennials aspired to become leaders. But in 2018 the reality is different, since only 6% hold a managerial or directorial position, and 30% are mid-level executives, according to Deloitte's 2018 Millennial Survey.

Gen-Zs see their strongest skills as curiosity, learning agility, adaptability, and creativity. They also feel unprepared in terms of intercultural and intergenerational awareness., In Mexico there are more than 51 million workers, of which, more than 18 million are formal, within a formally constituted company, according to data from the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) [2]. This figure is very changeable, it can grow or decrease according to the job creation rate. Only during the last year (2020), 653 thousand 832 new jobs were created, according to the statistics (IMSS), which means that there are more than half a million new workers in the country who, in at some point in their career they will aspire to improve their position or working conditions [2].

In this regard, Data from the Merca2.0 Research Department indicate that the desire to grow is present in the majority of Mexicans, since they consider that one should not spend more than five years in the same position or job [1]. According to the ‘Study Universities-Companies 2016’ [1], 60.2 percent of those consulted, indicate that the ideal age to occupy a coordination position is between 25 and 30 years old, while for 19.9 percent it is between 31 and 35 years old. Only for 10.8 percent is it ideal to reach this position before the age of 24. For the next level in the organization chart, which is that of management, 44.6 percent consider that the right time for people to reach this position is between 31 and 35 years old. As for 28.6 percent, it is at a slightly earlier age since they indicate that it should be between 25 and 30 years, unlike 16.5 percent who consider that the ideal time is after 36 years. Finally, the study has the participation of 2,641 people (Mexicans) asked about the right time to occupy the position of Director [3].

At least, for 70% of the companies have younger candidates. For several of these companies it is essential to have a renewed vision, but also professionals whom they can teach and mold [3]. Young managers do not usually have many years of experience, but they do have a robust career in terms of studies. Several of them study abroad, since a career for them is not enough, and they master two or more languages. In a study carried out by Adecco Group [3], we learned that 3 out of every 100 candidates who apply for leadership positions are between 25 and 30 years old, while about 2 are between 31 and 36 years old. Compared to 10 years ago, only 1.8% of candidates were between 25 and 30 years old, while 12% were between 31 and 36 years old. The truth is that today it is much more common to see a younger leadership has management staff.The strategy of constant training in technical skills and flexibility in their schedules has resulted in a turnover rate of personnel between 18 and 23 years of age close to 8%. As data, a Deloitte study revealed that Centennials are people who expect personalized growth plans in their jobs, with robust training and leadership programs, another aspect to evaluate is the career. Likewise, career development can no longer be conceived under the metaphor of the corporate ladder, which millennials completely reject, and replaced by a network concept, in which the millennial can learn new talents and not get bored, even if they are not promoted; that is, horizontal development has to be promoted.

Taking this previously mentioned information as a precedent, the Agro Anergy SA de CV signed an agreement with the technological universities of Mexico, specialized in the teaching of engineering and exact sciences, in order to recruit and train students to carry out their internships, the Academic and Bonding Process through which the student, according to his Educational Program, with the direction and supervision of an Academic Advisor and an Organizational Advisor, develops a project in an Organization or company, which translates into a contribution for it.And then were trained to assume the role of mid-range manager, this article presents the comparative study of the performance of the students who entered the program as well as the managers who were hired externally of different ages, in the following table 1 we have the student participation during 5 years period of time, the students enter from 4 different universities (table 1) in this period of time, the students have different evaluations like: Evaluation for team development, Evaluation for solving labor disputes (table 2), after 2 months of training in Training for the development of leadership skills, Training for team development, Evaluation for solving labor disputes (table 3), in technical knowledge  like: Calculation of Irrigation Systems Projects and Calculation of systems interconnected to the network, Evaluation -Calculation of Irrigation Systems (2) Projects2020the students have evaluation of technical knowledge (table 4)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  .

Table 1.

Student participation during the 5 years of application of the program.

  

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

UTM

Male

4

    

Female

1

    

UTCG

Male

 

8

 

10

8

Female

 

1

   

UTTG

Male

  

8

8

7

Female

  

1

1

 

UTP

Male

  

4

3

 

Female

  

1

1

 

 

 

Table2.

2019-2020 labor evaluation table

  

2019

2020

Evaluation interview

2019.

Evaluation for team development 2020

Evaluation for solving labor disputes

2020

UTM

Male

  

 

 

 

Female

  

1

1

1

UTCG

Male

10

8

1

1

1

Female

  

 

 

 

UTTG

Male

8

7

1

1

1

Female

1

 

 

 

 

UTP

Male

3

 

 

 

 

Female

1

 

 

 

 

Table 3.

Training for the development of leadership skills

  

2019

2020

Evaluation interview

2019.

Traning for team development 2020

Traning for solving labor disputes

2020

UTM

Male

  

 

 

 

Female

  

1

1

1

UTCG

Male

10

8

1

1

1

Female

  

 

 

 

UTTG

Male

8

7

1

1

1

Female

1

 

 

 

 

UTP

Male

3

 

 

 

 

Female

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table4.

Interview for evaluation of technical knowledge

  

2019

2020

Evaluation -Calculation of Irrigation Systems Projects 2020.

Evaluation -Calculation of Irrigation Systems (2) Projects2020

Evaluation -Calculation of systems interconnected to the network 2020

UTM

Male

  

 

 

 

Female

  

1

1

1

UTCG

Male

10

8

1

1

1

Female

  

 

 

 

UTTG

Male

8

7

1

1

1

Female

1

 

 

 

 

UTP

Male

3

 

 

 

 

Female

1

 

 

 

 

 

Table5.

Specialized job training table

  

2019

2020

Calculation of Irrigation Systems Projects 2020.

Calculation of Irrigation Systems (2) Projects2020

Calculation of systems interconnected to the network 2020

UTM

Male

  

 

 

 

Female

  

1

1

1

UTCG

Male

10

8

1

1

1

Female

  

 

 

 

UTTG

Male

8

7

1

1

1

Female

1

 

 

 

 

UTP

Male

3

 

 

 

 

Female

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 They were analyzed by the Innovationrelated to new organizational structures and administrative systems that generate the possibility of creating value for the companySpecialized job training table (table 5). and proactivity manager skill that is the attitude to motivates people to be responsible for their actions and invites them to advance firm life projects to achieve results., Organizational leadership and empathy and Specialization courses, assigning them a rating from 0 to 10, considering 10 as the highest and 0 the lowest, in this studio the managers evaluated have a university education in the area of ​​renewable energies, or similar (Table 6).

 

 

 

 

Table 6.

The evaluation averages

 

Experience in calculation of photovoltaic systems.

Leadership skills and team building

Proactivity and innovation

Interns Managers (Millennials Centennials)

2

5

10

Young external managers (Millennials Centennials)

1

4

9

External Generation X Managers

10

5

2

 

Results and Discussion:

To obtain the evaluation of managers with empirical values ​​in association with nominal values, we will be using the formula of bias-correction for Cram'er’s V and Tschuprow’s T [5].  Cram´er’s V and Tschuprow’s T are closely related nominal variable association measures, which are usually estimated by their empirical values. Although these estimators are consistent, they can have large bias for finite samples, making interpretation difficult. We propose a new and simple bias correction and show via simulations that, for larger than 2_2 tables, the newly obtained estimators outperform the classical (empirical) ones. For 2 _ 2 tables performance is comparable. The larger the table and the smaller the sample size, the greater the superiority of the new estimators.

Consider a probability distribution on an r _ c contingency table with the probability in cell (i, j) denoted πij (i.e., Σri=1 Σc j=1 πij = 1). The mean square contingency (also known as inertia in the correspondence analysis literature) is:

 

 

 

 

where a ‘+’ in a subscript denotes summation over that subscript. Two well-known measures, of nominal association based on ϕ2 are Cram´er’s V (Cram´er, 1946),

 

 

and Tschuprow’s T (Tschuprow, 1925, 1939).

 

 

Both coefficients range from zero to one, with equality to zero if and only if there is independence in the table, i.e., if and only if πij = πi+π+j. Furthermore, T = 1 if and only if there is perfect association in the table, i.e., if and only if exactly one cell in each row and each column has nonzero probability. Thus, T can only equal 1 for square tables. On the other hand, V can equal 1 for any rectangular table.

Now consider a multinomial sample of size n on the rXc contingency table. The proportion of the sample which is in cell (i, j) is denoted pij . The empirical value ˆϕ2 of ϕ2 is:

 

 

 

Where a ‘+’ in a subscript denotes summation over that subscript. Two well-known measures of nominal association based on ϕ and Tschuprow’s T (Tschuprow, 1925, 1939), Equations:

Coefficients range from zero to one, with equality to zero if and only if there is independence in the table, i.e., if and only if πij = πi+π+j. Furthermore, T = 1 if and only if there is perfect association in the table, i.e., if and only if exactly one cell in each row and each column has nonzero probability. Thus, T can only equal 1 for square tables. On the other hand, V can equal 1 for any rectangular table. [5].

 

 

Performing the equations, we obtain:

 

 

 

Interpretation

In any contingency table – regardless of the number of rows and columns – Cramérs V is between 0 and 1. It can be used for contingency tables of any size. A Cramérs V that is greater than 0.3 is considered in the social sciences to be a significant correlation.

Value range [0 to 1]

V = 0: there is no relationship between X and Y

V = 1: there is a perfect relationship between X and Y

V = 0.6: there is a relatively strong correlation between X and Y

      T = 1 if and only if there is perfect association in the indicated values ​​of the evaluation of the managers, 0.4 it indicates a close (strong) association between the nominal variables, which indicates that there is indeed a relationship between the managers evaluated and their performance within the company.

The integration of the internet of things and the managerial profile.

             It is a fact that the integration of online applications with managerial skills are part of the necessary leadership requirements of contemporary companies. Millennials and centennials compared to past generations are accustomed to a digital life, in which the flow of information is dynamic and decision-making is constant and fluid, the information between employees and managers is more constant and personal, coupled with this how many with extensive university preparation and mostly fluent in one or more languages.

Conclusion:

             Companies that are constantly innovating, achieve a 100% multicultural, inclusive, diverse and pluralistic environment where people from all over the world want to work growing dynamically in a highly competitive environment require trained managers, familiar with the digital world and social networks without leaving the human side of leadership and empathy, these managers are in the classrooms of universities or recent graduates between the generations of millennials and centennials, this new leaders have to  become known formanaging in a very different way from previous bosses and for changing the rules regarding communication, giving and receiving feedback, as well as the way they manage their work teams, in a digital native environment.

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About the authors

Oscar Fernando Gutierrez Cidel

Samara State University

Author for correspondence.
Email: ozcar.cidel@gmail.com
Mexico

References

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